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Water is a universal solvent, needed to sustain life. This study revealed the extent of microbial contamination in Ujiogba River, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. Forty – two water samples from three sampling points along the course of the river were collected and analysed from January to April, 2012, to determine the river’s microbial load. Seven bacterial isolates identified include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The fungal isolates included Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. The bacteria counts ranged from 21 to 96 x102cfu/ml, with the highest frequency of occurrence in Escherichia coli (25.81%) and least in Salmonella sp. (4.84%). The microbial load of water collected downstream was significantly different from the other sampling points. The pH and temperature ranged between 6.8±0.28 to 7.7±1.64 and 28±1.63°C to 35± 2.16°C, respectively. The water was contaminated and did not meet the minimum standard requirement of drinking water as prescribed by the World Health Organisation and United States Environmental and Protection Agency. The microorganisms isolated are capable of causing a lot of waterborne diseases. There is need for continuous monitoring so as to improve water quality and safeguard consumers from the impending public health diseases outbreak.


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Organization’s ability to continuously innovate its products is essential to its business success. Also, firm’s survival and improved performance hinge on introduction of innovative new products.  Following existing literature, we define technological innovation as work activities that concern new products and production processes and define new product introductions as new market offerings introduced by firms to meet external uses or needs in the market environment. This study investigates the impact of socio-demographic characteristics of technology-based micro-entrepreneurs on technological innovation and new product introduction among technology-based microenterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria. We go further, using chi square technique, to investigate the relationship between technological innovation and new product introduction. Survey method was used. Out of the 250 administered questionnaires 225 (90.00%) were retrieved.  The results show that technological innovation is distinct from new product introduction; however, there is a strong association between number of technological innovations and the number of new products introduced by the enterprises (p< 0.05). Other results and their implications are discussed.


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Literation has established the importance of small businesses in contributing new things such as innovations and new jobs to the economy. In Nigeria there are many small businesses but their effect on national economy has not been felt. This may be due to lack of innovation activity in the firms. Also, the nature of entry into micro-firms in Nigeria calls for concern. Participants’ observation showed that due to the high level of unemployment in the country, young people, some of whom have not acquired any meaningful education start fragile micro businesses that can easily die off. Underperformance of the micro firms might have been influenced by the entrepreneurs’ age academic background, firm age or firm size. This study investigates the extent of technological innovation/new product introduction and the impact of the four socio-demographic characteristic on technological innovation/new product introduction among technology-based micro-entrepreneurs in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey method was used. Out of the 250 randomly administered questionnaire, 225 (90%) were retrieved. The result shows that majority of the respondents were female, young and with low academic background. Majority of the firms developed 1 – 3 technological innovation in a period of five years but these did not translate to new products introductions. The results revealed that majority of the firms did not have any new product introduction in five years. All the four socio-demographic characteristics examined in this study were positively and significantly associated with technological innovations and new products introduction except entrepreneur’s age whose association with the new product introduction was not significant. This study concludes that the technology-based micro entrepreneurs in Lagos State in Nigeria need governmental intervention which should be directed towards increasing their level of education and provision of technical assistance in running the businesses to enhance their performance. Other results and implication are discussed.


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The rapid emergence of women as owners of small businesses has important implications for the study of women’s entrepreneurship. Differences in views and theoretical submissions call for more research on the role of gender in entrepreneurship. While liberal feminism holds that men and women are essentially equal, social feminism focuses on the unique needs, experiences, competencies and values of women as women. In entrepreneurship research, efforts on the effect of gender on firm’s performance are still very scanty and results from the few efforts are inconsistent. To extend knowledge on hoe gender influences entrepreneurial operations, this study investigates the impact of gender on business-related knowledge of small-scale manufacturing entrepreneurs in Lagos State, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty five purposively selected firms participated in the study. Results revealed significant relationship between gender and the comprehensive knowledge set of respondents. Further analysis revealed a strong association between gender and knowledge of how to serve market, but no significant association was found between gender and familiarity with customers’ problems. Findings suggest that small scale female entrepreneurs possess more business-related knowledge that their male counterparts.


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Parents are the first contact in a child’s life and the future prospect of such a child depends on certain phenomena exhibited by the parents in which attitude plays a crucial role. This study aims to examine the impact of parental attitudes on future economic survival of their children. The study is designed as a descriptive survey where 100 households are selected in Ajasa and Ipaja environ of Alimosho Local Government, Lagos State. The households selected are those that have had all children in adulthood and data of the selected households are drawn from previous secondary school records and comments from class teachers of such children which are used to decode their parental attitudes. All variables employed are converted to nominal scale to ensure the use of Probit regression technique. These variables are current economic status of the children, parental attitude towards education, parental attitude toward children discipline, parental participation in children extra curriculum activities, parental response to children’ ill- behaviour in schools, children education materials and facilities available in schools. The findings show that all variables are significant at different levels but parent attitude to children education is negative. Therefore, it can be said parental attitudes have significant impact on children future economic survival and they need to be supported by the government.

 


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Human trafficking has become a global phenomenon in which countries of the world are putting all necessary mechanism to check its inflows. Studies carried out so far have shown that all efforts to curb its spread amounted to nothing. This paper has the aim of examining the impact of human trafficking on the households and show that the benefits it confers on the households are the main reason for its continuous patronage. The study is designed as empirical research and 500 households are selected in Ogwa City in Edo State. The findings of the study show that there is significant relationship between the number of intending to migrate abroad and the expected improvement in their social- well being of their prospective families. Secondly, the findings of the study reveal that expectations of better standard of living lure many into the hands of human traffickers. Lastly, the findings of the study show that the families of the migrants attain higher standard of living than their counterparts. The study therefore recommends that exodus of people out of the country can be curbed if poverty is reduced in the lands and each household attains a level of well- being.


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Nigeria since independence has been mired in development challenges. These challenges have been made more complex by the multi-ethnic character of the Nigerian state as well as the mutual fears of domination that have pervaded the nation. This is even aggravated by the type of federalism we are operating as a country. Indeed, this has impacted negatively on the country, stalling its socio-economic development. This paper argues for true federalism as a catalyst for socio-economic development in Nigeria. The paper relies heavily on secondary sources of historical data. The paper, therefore, concludes by recommending devolution of power to all the federating states that form Nigeria as a way out, among others.


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