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This study examined the powdered sample of the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia Peruviana, the seeds were analysed for proximate composition, mineral content, while the oil extracted from the seeds were evaluated for physicochemical properties using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the proximate composition (%) of the raw and boiled samples respectively are moisture (2.00 and 2.89), ash (3.33 and 2.96), crude protein (30.10 and 29.6), crude fibre (4.79 and 5.21), crude fat ( 58.3 and 59.20), carbohydrate ( 1.80 and 0.30), and energy (2524.5 and 2521.1) KJ/g. While the physiochemical properties of the extracted oil are acid value (1.71 and 1.41) mg/g, peroxide value (3.85 and 11.51) mg/g, iodine value (83.89 and 76.20) mgKOH/g, saponification value (224.26 and 193.78)mg/g, unsaponification value (2.04 and 1.59)mg/g, density (0.89 and 0.88) g/dm3, specific gravity (0.91 and 0.93), refractive index at 320C (1.46 and 1.47) and viscosity (28.21 and 30.59) pal/sec. The mineral contents of both raw and boiled samples are in the order of P > K > Na > mg > Fe > Ca > Zn > Mn. Cd, Pb, Ca and Cr were detected in raw and boiled samples except Ca that was detected in raw sample. Generally, the high protein and fat contents show that the samples can be used in food and feed formulation while the saponification values, iodine values and the presence of some valuable minerals indicate that they can be used for other industrial purpose.


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The study investigated the anti-microbial activities of the leaves of Senna occidentalis in the treatment of some bacteria diseases. 385.50g of Senna occidentalis leaves was plucked in an open field of Zebe, Ajara Agamathan in Badagry, Lagos State and was subjected to hydro-distillation by the use of Clevenger apparatus for 4hours. The volatile oil obtained was bottled and weighed with a percentage yield of 0.078%. The oil from the leaves were cultured (with some antibiotics used as control) Amoxillin, Cotrimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin, Nalidixicin, Ofloxacin, Agumetin, Colistin on each nutrient agar (ASA) plates at 37 0C for 24 hours and were tested against some organisms such as: (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Sp., Bacillus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., Klebsilia Sp). The study revealed that the essential oil extracted did not inhibit activity against all the organisms. This indicates that oil extracted from Senna occidentalis leaves cannot be used to control the microbes at the (0.2ml) concentraion used. Further investigation showed that two (Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin) of the entire antibiotics used as control inhibited the growth of the microbes. Thus, an infection caused by senna occidentalis can be cured by Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin antibiotics.


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This study assessed the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia peruviana for amino acid contents, fatty acids composition and Phytochemical properties. The parameters of interest were determined using standard methods.The study revealed the main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in raw and boiled thevetia peruviana seed. The unsaturated fatty acids are palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3) and erucic acid (C22:1). Oleic acid is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid followed by linoleic acid with values as follows, (54.75 % and 21.48 %) while for boiled (52.45 % and 18.95 %) respectively in each case. Myristic acid, Pamlitic acid, Stearic acid and Behenic acid are the saturated fatty acid. Also, the value of oleic acid (C18:1) reduced (52.45 %) due to the effect of boiling, while the saturated fatty of pamlitic acid (C16:0) increased (19.06 %) due to the effect of boiling. The study further revealed that all the essential amino acids required in human and animal diet were present in both raw and boiled seed of Thevetia peruviana. Glutamate acid has the most abundant in both raw and boiled sample (18.45 %) and (19.99 %) respectively while the lowest of all in raw is Cysteine (1.18 %) and in the boiled Histidine (1.25 %) which is as a result of boiling.The Phytochemical screening on the oil revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The boiling has little reduction on the characteristics of boiled thevetia peruviana seed.


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Water samples were collected for analysis from dug reservoirs in different residential areas of Ogwa communities in Edo state, Nigeria. Physico-chemical properties of these water samples were determined using standard analytical procedures. Samples were collected from five  different sites and analyzed for following parameters such as color, odor, taste, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness and concentration of principal cations and anions such as Na+, K+,Mn2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, phosphate PO42- and nitrate NO3-. The results of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range pH (5.71- 6.14), temperature (31.1-31.9˚c), turbidity (0.12-0.37mg/l), conductivity (24.92-113.03µS/cm), odor (odorless), chloride (0.00 -41.34 mg/l), total dissolved solids (13.06- 40.45mg/l), total suspended solids (0.00-0.59mg/l), total hardness (2.6-7.8mg/l), Colour (1-2ptCO), Sulphate (12.5-194mg/l), Phosphate (0.004- 0.007mg/l) and Nitrate (0.23-2.15mg/l) .The concentrations of the metals can also be expressed in the following range; Na+ (2-20 mg/l), K+ (1-3 mg/l), Mn2+(2.5-9.34 mg/l), Fe2+(0.32-1.48mg/l). The data showed that there is variation in the investigated parameters and the highest value of physico-chemical parameters were obtained in Iyekeki. The concentrations of the investigated parameters of water samples conform to the permissible limits set by World Health Organization except that the pH values of the water samples were below the standards set by WHO/Nigeria standard of drinking water and the concentrations of manganese in the water samples exceed the standard set by World Health Organization. 


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In order to investigate the mechanism of antibiotic resistance of some bacterial pathogens from the sputum of pneumonia patients, 160 sputum samples were collected from patients within 1-30 years of age attending the outpatients department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. 101 (63.1%) out of this number gave growth for bacterial pathogens. The bacteria isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus viridans and Moraxella catarrhalis. The highest in occurrence was S. viridians (51.5%) and the least was Staphylococcus spp (2.9%). The age group 1-5 years had the highest bacterial count (69.9%) while age group 21-25 years had the least count (50%). The isolates were highly resistant to the various antibiotics used. The resistance rate was highest for streptomycin (94.1%) and lowest for gentamycin (20.8%). 89(88.1%) out of the total number, showed the presence of amoxicillin resistance (amxr) gene. When these resistant isolates were subjected to curing in the presence of 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 73(82.01%) lost their amxr gene which showed that this gene was probably located on a plasmid in these strains.


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A total of 160 sputum samples were obtained from pneumonia patients (1 – 30 years) attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The microorganisms encountered included Streptococcus viridians, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus species. S. viridans was highest in occurrence (51.5%) and Staphylococcus sp. was the least (2.9%). Their antibiotic resistance pattern revealed that streptomycin had the highest activity (94.1%) and gentamycin the least (23.8%). Amoxicillin resistance gene (amxr) was detected in 89 (88.1%) out of the total isolates. When these resistant isolates were subjected to curing using 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 73 (82.0%) lost their resistance genes. An average transfer rate of 53.88% and 33.59% were obtained for intraspecies and intergeneric transfer of amxr gene respectively. Intraspecies gene transfer rate was significantly higher than intergeneric at p<0.001, using the chi – square goodness of fit test for statistical analysis.


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History plays a critical role in the political and socio-economic development of any country. In this connection, proper methods of teaching the subject constitute a crucial development discourse that cannot be overemphasized. Regrettably, the fortunes of History as a discipline nose-dived since the last two decades of the twentieth century to the opening decade of the twenty-first century because of the perceived conception of the sciences as the more crucial tools for national development. This paper examines the challenges of resuscitating interest in History in the twenty-first century and the role that new methods would play in reawakening such interest in the discipline. The paper adopted the historical method of collection and interpretation of data. The secondary data on which this work relied would be subjected to textual and contextual analysis. The discussion is in five parts. The first section introduces the work while the second section examines the gains of History in sharpening the intellectual skills of students. The third part discusses the dilemma of the Nigeria state and the neglect of History, while the fourth part examines the methods of teaching the discipline in Nigerian schools. The concluding section of this work draws attention to the need to adopt new methods of teaching the subject so as to make it relevant in proffering solution to Nigeria’s leadership and developmental challenges.


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The present study aims to evaluate the fungal inhibitory activity of seed kernel oil extracted from mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit. Mango is one of the most important tropical fruits that is abundant in Nigeria. Thus, there is an abundant supply of mango seed kernels which are considered as wastes after consumption or industrial processing of mango fruits. The oil was extracted from the mango seed kernels by solvent extraction process. Agar dilution assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mango seed kernel oil against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum. The mango seed kernel oil (MSKO) was found to inhibit growth of the two fungi tested at different concentrations (1.33%, 2.67% and 4.0%). 4% concentration of MSKO in the agar brought about a reduction in the mycelial growth diameter of A. niger at Day 7 from 44.0 ± 1.41 mm (control) to 35.5 ± 0.71 mm while the reduction in the mycelial growth diameter of P. italicum at Day 7 was from 44.0 ± 14.14 mm (control) to 33.0 ± 0.00 mm. Mango seed kernel oil produced mycelium growth inhibition of A. niger and P. italicum at 4% concentration, with percentage inhibitions of 19.32% and 25.0%, respectively. The results revealed that P. italicum was more sensitive to the mango seed kernel oil than A. niger. These results
suggest that mango seed kernel oil could have potential applications in the food industry to prevent fungal associated food spoilage from important pathogenic genera Aspergillus and Penicillium.


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The biodegradation potentials of microorganisms isolated from different sampling points of Eleme petrochemical industrial effluent were analyzed. Eleme Petrochemical effluents take various forms which include; processed wastewater (raw effluent); clarified water (waste water undergoing treatment); retention pond gate (treated waste water) and receiving river. Biodegradation potentials of microorganisms isolated from the effluents were determined by shake flask degradation and screening test. The physicochemical analysis revealed that effluents from Eleme Petrochemical Company Limited generally contained low concentrations of physicochemical pollutants except for total suspended solids (78.48 ± 0.01mg/l) and oil and grease (25.80 ± 0.02mg/l) contents which were higher than FEPA recommended limits. The isolated microorganisms identified to the genus level included Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Serratia, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Vibrio, Proteus, Achromobacter, Citrobacter, Flavobacterium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Monilia and Trichoderma. Pseudomonas had the highest frequency of occurrence (10.33%) among bacteria while Aspergillus had the highest frequency of occurrence (19.58%) among fungi. Microbiological enumeration revealed that process waste water had the highest counts for total heterotrophic bacterial (THBC) (9.0×103cfu/ml) and total fungal counts (TFC) (5.0×103cfu/ml) while retention pond gate contained the highest counts for total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (THUB) (5.7×103cfu/ml). Pseudomonas, Serratia, Bacillus, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium were the most dominant microorganisms capable of utilizing petrochemical industrial effluent. The consortium of microorganisms demonstrated the highest efficacy to utilize petrochemical industrial effluent. Biodegradation of petrochemical industrial effluents by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of physicochemical parameters such as BOD (consortium of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp., 96%) and COD (consortium of Aspergillus and Penicillium, 89%).


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It is universally acknowledged that death is inevitable. This explains why people who loss their beloved ones organize elaborate burial rites for the deceased in order not to render them as outcast in the land of the ‘Spirit’. This study investigated traditional burial rites among the Ughievwen, a subset of the Urhobo people of Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how traditional values united African Societies until the introduction of Christainity and its values. The study adopted the historical method of investigation. It relied on existing oral traditions of the people and few available literatures to attempt an analysis of traditional burial rites in Ughievwen land considering the difficulty of getting reliable data for the period covered by the study. It was found that adherence to Christian doctrines appears not to have prevented people from inheriting properties left by
deceased persons, yet, Christian adherents saw the indigenous rites as fetish. The study concludes that burial rites do not connote fetishness; rather, they are part of the culture which need to be sustained, so that the people’s culture does not go into extinction.


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Three lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains; Pediococcus pentosaceus IO1, Tetragenococcus halophilus PO9 and Lactobacillus cellobiosus BE1 isolated from different traditionally fermented products were evaluated for their bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus
and the influence of pH and heat treatment on their bacteriocin activity was assessed. The crude bacteriocins produced by the LAB strains were highly thermostable, retaining their activity even after heat treatment at 115 oC for 15 min, and stable at pH range of 2 – 9 with higher activity at acidic pH (pH 2 and 5). These results indicate that the bacteriocins produced by bacteriocinogenic LAB isolates could be used as biopreservatives in acidic and heat-processed foods.


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The paper opines that the underdevelopment of the communities of Contemporary Africa is due mainly to the crisis of governance and poor leadership. Drawing from the case of Ughievwen Social and Political institutions in the pre-colonial times using the methodology of counterfactual approach, the paper explains the importance of history in charting a new direction for the continent. The discussion is six parts. The first section introduces the discussion by showing the gap between the potentials and the in-roads of the continent since the end of colonialism. The second part examines briefly the geographical and historical background of Ughievwen while the third section examines pre-colonial Ughievwen social and political institutions up to the first half of the twentieth century to show the insights that could be drawn from it with regards to policy-making. The fourth section examines the evolution from kinship to kingship political system in Ughievwen land to demonstrate the
internal dynamics of pre-colonial socities. The fifth part discusses aspects of the colonial policies of the British and how it influenced the course of Africa’s history. The concluding section of this paper challenges African historians to re-focus their attention on how to make history relevant in proffering solutions to African developmental challenges.


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The paper examined the interlocking relationship among democracy, development and insurgency in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. It interrogated the western orthodox
conception that democracy necessarily brings about development. It made use of
literary materials in its analysis after subjecting them to textual and contextual analysis. The paper posited that since 1999, Nigeria’s ruling elites have marginalized and impoverished the vast majority of Nigerians. It contended that the failure of the ruling elite accentuated insurgency and terrorism and concluded that the prophylactic is for the Nigerian people to remain the focus and ‘raison d’ etre’ of democracy and not pursuit of ‘self’ and ‘class’ interests. 


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As with other parts of Africa, British colonial administration stifled the indigenous
technological instincts of Nigerian peoples. Before the introduction of colonization to Africa, the people had their own ways of providing for their needs. The advent of colonialism disrupted this ingenuity. The colonial economy of most African states was structured to improve the economies of the colonizers. It is against this background that this paper seeks to show how the introduction of foreign drinks (spirits) dampened the indigenous technological instincts of the Ughievwen people and consequently led to the decline of indigenous gin production which came to be regarded as “illicit”. The paper concludes that because of the influence and exploitative interests of colonial administrative officers who were out to advance the development of their employer’s economy, indigenous technological instincts of the Ughievwen people nose-dived. Colonialism thus impacted in major ways on the lives of those whose lands were colonized. This may affect people’s lives, even in the near future.


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The greatest challenge facing the pharmacological use of phytochemicals is the fact that they are subject to modifications by the several processes they may be exposed to. Thus, pharmacological activities of the new compounds become a matter of scientific interest. Scientists are further faced with the challenge of not knowing the direction of research since the activity of some modified products can differ greatly from the primary compounds. In this study, in silico approach was used to determine the pharmacological and biochemical activity of ascorbic acid and its oxidation products. The probable activity (Pa) was set at equal to or greater than (≥) 0.900 and probable inactivity (Pi) was set at equal to or less than (≤) 0.03. The oxidation products of ascorbic acid were observed to have lesser antioxidant activity. Other possible pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic and respiratory analeptic were revealed. This approach could guide research on new compounds and their processing induced modified products that will greatly enhance drug discovery and formulation of functional foods.


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Spices are rich in phytochemicals which are responsible for their observed antioxidant property. This potential can be affected by heat treatment when spices are used as food additives. This research studied the effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant capacity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aframomum angustifolium seeds. The antioxidant capacity was measured in vitro by evaluating the metal chelating activity (MCA), ferric reducing ability (FRA), hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) before and after heat treatment. The percentage metal chelating activity of the extracts
before heating were comparable (p > 0.05) to that of ascorbic acid while the percentage metal chelating activity of the ethanol extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 65.99% to 47.62% after heat treatment for 30 min. The percentage hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the aqueous extract was unaffected (p > 0.05) by heat treatment whereas the activity in ethanol extract decreased. The ferric reducing ability of the extracts decreased significantly after heat treatment while the NO scavenging activity increased with heat treatment. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the extracts measured as ascorbic acid equivalents reduced but were not
significantly affected by heat treatment. The results of this study suggest that the antioxidant potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. angustifolium seeds is not totally lost by heat treatment.


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The nephrotoxic effects of Strophantus hispidus stem bark (aqueous and ethanol) in normal rats were assessed. Male rats (Wistar strain) numbering 45 were randomly selected into nine groups of five rats each. Four groups were given 100, 200, 500 and 800 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract, while another four groups received similar doses of ethanol extract. One group served as untreated normal control. After 28 days of daily administration of the extracts and water, animals were sacrificed. Urea, creatinine and some electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- & HCO3-) were assessed. Both extracts produced significant increases (p<0.05) in urea concentration at 800 mg/kg when compared with the control group. At the same dose, significant increase (p<0.05) were observed in creatinine concentration for the aqueous and ethanol extracts treated groups while the ethanol extract treated groups at 500 mg/kg body weight also showed significant increases (p<0.05) in creatinine. Similarly, K+ significantly increased at 800 mg/kg body weight for both extracts while Na+ produced a significant increase at the same dose for the aqueous extract treated groups. However, a significant increase in Na+ was observed in the ethanol treated groups at the doses of 500 and 800 mg/kg. Interestingly, no significant effects (p>0.05) were observed in the levels of Cl- and HCO3- at all the doses of aqueous extract administered. The ethanol extract treated groups however showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in Cl- content and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HCO3- content at the highest dose administered when compared with the control. The findings from this study suggest that higher doses of S. hispidus are inimical to kidney function. It also indicates that the extract may be deleterious to the nephrons than aqueous extract.


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This study examined the factors influencing transition from organizational employment to self-employment among high school teachers in Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents who were randomly selected. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists was used to analyze the data. The study revealed the significance of parent’s involvement in business and entrepreneurial training in the development of entrepreneurial intention among respondents. Data analyses revealed associations between father’s involvement in business and the propensity of offspring to engage in self-employment. The study concluded that the influence that parents’ involvement in business will have on offspring’s entrepreneurial intention should be a motivating factor to policy makers to formulate policies that will provide enabling environment for such businesses. Also, entrepreneurial training should be intensified for the youths to foster the development of entrepreneurship in the country.  


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This study identified the nature of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) adopted on project planning activities and examined the factors affecting the adoption of these ICT on project planning in the Food and Beverage Industry in Nigeria. The study was carried out through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule to a total of forty five (45) respondents across ICT, Production and Project departments of food and beverage firms in southwestern Nigeria. This was used to elicit information on the factors affecting the adoption of ICT in the industry. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the major ICT adopted by food and beverage firms in Nigeria were Enterprise resource planning (4.48), Product lifecycle management (4.29), Customer Relationship Management (4.19), Supply Chain Management (4.34), Management Information Systems (4.38), Portable Data Collection Hand Held (4.65), Virtual Private Networks (4.53), Internet and e-mail (4.77). All of these ICTs had a mean rank of 4.00 and above on a 5 point-likert scales.Three factors were identified to influence ICT adoption. These include Human Resource capacity (52.8%), level of ICT investment (47.2%) and ICT competency (69.4%). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that level of ICT on Investment (r = -.425**: p<0.05) and Employee Competency (r = -.634**: p<0.05) are factors which had significant influence on ICT adoption in the project planning activities of the firms. In conclusion, the study revealed that Level of ICT investment and employee ICT competency are factors that significantly influence the adoption of ICT in the selected firms. These factors were found to be critical hindrances to ICT adoption in Nigerian food and beverage industry.


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This study identified, categorized project scope management practices employed by telecommunication organization in the implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) projects. The study examined the factors influencing the choice of scope management practices on ICT projects implementation among telecommunication organizations in Nigeria. The study was carried out with the use of primary data source which were obtained through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule to a total of one hundred and twenty five (125) project sponsors, one hundred and twenty five (125) project managers/coordinators and one hundred and twenty five project team members on ICT projects implemented by telecommunication organizations in Nigeria. This was used to elicit information on the factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices among telecommunication organizations in implementing ICT projects. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed the major adopted factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices among telecommunication organizations in implementing ICT projects were Competitive Advantage, Organizational Process Assets, Expert Judgment, Complex Activity List, Complex Project Scope Statement, Limited Resources, Fast Tracking, Project Delays, Client Demand, Technical Skills Required, Dynamism of Technology and Return on Investment. All of these factors had a mean rank of 3.50 and above on a 5 point-likert scale. Four of these factors were identified to be major factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices employed by telecommunication organizations implementing ICT projects. These include Competitive Advantage (58.5%), Complex Project Scope Statement (85.8%), Client’s Demand (60.9%) and Return on Investment (52.5%). Correlation analysis revealed that Organizational process assets (r = .448**: p<0.05), Expert Judgment (r = .261**: p<0.05), Complex project scope statement (r = .260**: p<0.05), Limited resources (r = -.425**: p<0.05), Client’s demand (r = .533**: p<0.05), and Returns on investment (r = .309**: p<0.05) were shown to have a significant relationship with the choice of project scope management practices employed by the organizations. In conclusion, the study revealed that Organizational process assets, Expert judgment, Complex project scope statement, Limited resources, client’s demand and Return on Investment are factors that significantly influence the choice of project scope management practices in the telecommunication organizations.


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Rice milling enterprise is critical to agricbusiness and is one of the most food processing business that can serve as a means for conserving foreign exchange in Nigeria. The study assessed the agribusiness environment of the small scale rice-milling industry and examined the technology capacity of the paddy farmers. Twenty-Five (25) questionnaires were administered on selected paddy farmers, and rice millers to make a total of fifty (50). The result showed that men played dominant roles in paddy rice farming in the study area.  About 90% of the rice farmers had put in at least ten years and above.  About 26% of respondents were illiterates and 36.6% of farmers practiced mixed farming.  Most (76.4%) of them used their own seed.  About 47% of farmers employed “from the top” while the remaining 53% used “from the bottom” for harvesting.  Many of the farmers employed different parboiling and drying methods which led to variation in the quality of the milled rice.  The implication of these findings as they relate to increase rice production and the economic well-being of the stakeholders is discussed.

 


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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been known as vital technologies that are associated with production mechanisms for technological progress. The study examined the impact of ICT on project planning activities in Nigerian food and beverage industry. Data from primary sources were obtained through the use of questionnaire and interview scheduled on one hundred and seventy five (175) purposively selected users of ICT across three Departments of food and beverage firms in Nigeria. This was with a view to elicit information on the level of outputs and significance of the application of ICT to the performance of the industry. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis of variance shows that there were significant difference in the mean rank of respondents’ opinion on ICT to improve quality (F=110.07, P = 0.05), reduce cost (F=110.07, p<0.05), improves process (F=140.93, p<0.05), and reduce processing time (F=184.36, p<0.05). Evidence shows that Internet usage, Virtual Private Network (VPN), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) had strong impact on product quality, process improvement, cost and time reduction. It was concluded that the absence of ICT in the firm will slow down the effective coordination of raw materials.


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This study examines the patterns and impacts of rice production and technological efficiency on economic growth in some selected countries. Data used for the study covered the period 1990-2015 and were all obtained from Word Bank Development Index online.  Descriptive and panel data techniques were employed in the analysis. The Panel regression results reveals that the F-statistics value for the fixed effect model exceeds (65.20) that of the Pooled OLS (58.1) at 1% level of significance, necessitating the adoption of the fixed effect model, with an adjusted R2 value of 0.86. The empirical findings reveal that the countries exhibit differential rates of technology, necessitating some of the countries having technological efficiency values higher than the mean value of the entire sampled countries. The results further show that rice production index and technological efficiency are positive and significant to stimulating economic growth in the sampled countries. Hence, domestic production of rice induces positive spill-overs on income, employment and poverty reduction.   We recommend rice production enhancement policies as well is increased technological know-how should be encouraged in order to enhance economic growth in these countries


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The paper examined the impact of Strategic Management on the performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) via competitive advantage, sales and profit.  This was with the view of assessing the impact of Strategic Management on sustainable growth in Nigerian SMEs. A descriptive survey research design was employed for the paper using structured questionnaire and oral interview for data collection. The questionnaire was administered on thirty SMEs owners in four states of Southwest Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Osun and Oyo State. Thus, a total of 120 respondents were purposively sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed using frequency tables, simple percentages and chi-square test. The results showed that Strategic Management practices significantly assist SMEs to gain competitive advantage ( The results further showed that Strategic Management significantly increased their sales ( and improved their profits levels. The paper concluded that, Strategic Management has contributed immensely to the sustainable growth of Small and Medium scale Enterprises in South-West Nigeria and recommended that Strategic Management practice should be adopted by all small and medium business firms in Nigeria.


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This paper focused on the challenges and prospects of private sector organizations as the main engines of economic growth and development in Nigeria. It discussed the concepts of organization, the prospects and challenges of private sector-led growth in Nigeria. The study examined the current business environment and discussed ways of encouraging the private sector organizations in Nigeria to act as a catalyst for economic growth and development. The paper posits that to achieve a desired sustainable private sector-led the growth of the economy, it is imperative for the government to continuously put in place policies and programs that will encourage private sector participation and contribution to the development process. Finally, it concluded that there is growth in the financial performance of private sector organizations and its sustained prospects and success hinged on all those series of initiatives and policies of the government to advances private sector-led growth and transform the country into an economy that is robust, stable, dynamic, export-led and competitive


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The focus of this paper is on Human Resources accounting which has not been properly integrated into the financial statement of various organizations and being regarded as assets. The main purpose of this study is to examine the issues involved in valuing human resource /people working in organizations, which has been regarded as the most valuable assets in business organizations, the benefits of attaching values and the challenges and obstacles of implementing the Human Resource accounting disclosures of such values in the firm’s statement of financial position. In the pursuit of the focus of this study, the paper adopts exploratory and content analysis methods of secondary data. The paper reveals that the exponent of human resources valuation models in most cases has not dealt with the mode of recording and disclosure of the accounting information relating to human resources in the books of account or financial statements of the organization. In most cases, the human resource accounting information is given in the form of supplementary information attached to the financial statements. This is of great concern to accounting professionals and practitioners. The paper concludes that considerable research done is due to the increasing importance of human capital in the economy to develop the concepts and methods of valuing human resource that has been recognized as human resources accounting (HRA), and that there is a great need for evolving a system of accounting for human resource that is acceptable to professional accountants, managers and other decision makers – investors, creditors and other stakeholders.

 


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Governance has become so vast and complex that the government of the people, for the people and by the people has become the government of the people, by the government and for the people. The logic behind the idea of government supports the development of political and administrative structures that offer the potentials for political stability and national development. The public servant in this regard plays a significant role in the successful achievement of good governance. This study is expected to explain the relationship between politicians, public servants and good governance while it further revealed the efficiency of the application of the law in force, the efficacy of the decisions made by the government, and the political responsibility and accountability of elected officials in relation to the demand expressed by civil society. The study is qualitative in nature, as it based its theoretical framework on structural functionalism. It submits that there is the need for full respect for citizen’s rights as the public service is a major change agent in Nigeria’s quest for enhanced progress, hence the on-going reformation of the Nigerian public service is in line to achieve the purpose of good governance and deal with the challenges therein.


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In recent times, research done on Carica papaya seeds has shown its nutritive and medicinal benefits without resort to possible side effect. However, studies have shown that the consumption of C. papaya seeds causes vascular contraction, infertility in female rats, reduced sperm counts, sperm cell degeneration and abortifacient properties. This study was designed to determine the enzyme assay level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum of wistar rats fed with modified diet of C. papaya milled seeds to ascertain possible hepatic or myocardia defect. A total of 15 wistar rats were divided into two groups comprising of test (8) and control (7) respectively. The test group were fed with modified diet of edible black C. papaya seeds and the control group with grower’s marsh feed for a period of 9 weeks. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase activity showed the Mean ± SEM of aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum of the test group as 0.38±0.03 and the control group 0.19±0.10 respectively. Subsequently, alanine aminotransferase activity from the obtained test and control groups showed the Mean ± SEM of alanine aminotransferase activity in the serum as 0.86±0.02 and 1.25±0.03 respectively. Furthermore, there is a significant (P<0.05) difference between the control and test group based on the level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activity in the serum. In summary, transaminases are usually used in the diagnosis of liver damage and myocardia infarction. Therefore, the increase level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in the serum of Wistar Strain albino rats may suggest possible damage of hepatocyte cardiac muscles associated with the consumption of diet modified fed with C. papaya seeds.


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This study investigated the effect of air and sun drying methods on the antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. leaves. The total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and ferric reducing power were evaluated using standard spectrophotometric methods against different concentrations (30 to 120µg/ml) of the plant extract and ascorbic acid as reference standard. There was no significant difference in the total antioxidant capacity estimated as ascorbic acid equivalent between the air and sun-dried extracts. A concentration dependent increase in antioxidant capacity was observed in the other assays. The air – dried extract had the highest percentage activity except in the metal chelating and ferric reducing power assays. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the air-dried extract (86.21±1.19%) was significantly higher than ascorbic acid (85.69±0.90%) and the sundried extract (77.14±1.19%) at 120µg/ml. The result of this study suggests a better potential for air drying of basil leaves for use as spices, food additive and in traditional medicine.


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The focus of this study is to assess the democratic system and factor analysis of environment of business organizations in Nigeria. This paper examined the practice, problems and prospects of Nigerian democratic system and the relationship between democracy and environment of business organizations in Nigeria. This paper discusses the process of environmental analysis using the concept of strength, weakness, opportunities and threat (SWOT) model approaches. The methodology utilized for this study is the descriptive and content investigation with qualitative reporting. The study largely employs secondary data sourced from textbooks, journal publication, newspapers articles, internet materials and academic papers. The research reveals that Nigerian democratic system has not achieved much success in bestowing to the people their fundamental desires or even the requirement to participate in the management of the affairs of the country. This study contends that despite, the hope of a politically steady and democratically feasible country, obviously the citizens’ eagerness to take part in the electoral practice and the general awareness in the country that the only acceptable and popular route to the attainment of political power is to vote. The paper recommends that further research is done on the subject using appropriate statistical and econometric tools for the analysis of linkage between democracy and the tangential features of the environment of industrial organizations.


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The ecological crises in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is not unconnected to several factors, ranging from degradation and pollution; induced as a result of trade with Europe and eventual commercialization of the area by western countries. But all these were not to be if not for the demythologization of the traditional ecological myths through western Christianity. The active role of the missionaries made them accomplices in opening-up of the area to subsequent ecological crises. The paper therefore, aims to establish the argument that the demythologization of the myths that preserve the Niger Delta environment preceded and gave the way for ecological crises that are prevalent in Niger Delta area. The trend of the demythologization observed from the colonial to neo-colonial period, is therefore, instructive in the search for solution for the ecological crises in the Niger Delta area. Findings further shows that the myths were more effective than the government laws and policies on the protection of the environment, and that Christianity has found a replacement for these myths. Using both literal criticism approach the paper suggest a replacement of the myths by a combination of government and Christian efforts being a dominant religion in the area.


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In the last few years, failure in secondary schools certificate examination has become a recurring incidence in Nigeria. This scenario can be traced to aliteracy which is the ability to read but choosing not to do so. The governments at various levels, the parents,
teachers, school librarians and indeed the students all have roles in putting an end to this menace. This paper seek to identify aliteracy among Nigerian students, examine the roles of school libraries and school librarians, teachers and other stakeholders in the joint task
of reducing to the barest minimum and indeed putting an end to aliteracy and the consequent failure among the secondary schools in Nigeria.


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Abstract
Lassa fever, a zoonotic disease, endemic in parts of Nigeria, is caused by the Lassa virus. It is a haemorrhagic fever, caused by the Lassa virus. The animal host is Mastomynatalensis. This paper presents a state of knowledge report through literature search, newspaper report and oral communication. The virus is fairly easily transmitted from human to human. The symptoms are varied and non-specific, making clinical diagnosis of the disease difficult in the early stages. The fever was first reported in Nigeria in 1969 in Bornu State. Up to date, it has been clinically confirmed in 21 states.
Nigerians especially in rural areas are oblivious of the disease and there are only two hospitals in the country with the capacity to screen the blood for Lassa virus. The best strategy for control of the emerging disease is prevention through an intensive awareness
campaign and libraries all over Nigeria has a role to play in the control and reduction of cases of the disease.


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Abstract

Medical Information resources are useless when access is not provided. This fundamental function is within the
concept of cataloguing and classification. Thus, cataloguing and classification is an essential process that provides access
to all acquired information resources of the medical libraries for it allows librarians to gives details bibliographic
description, subject analysis and assignment of classification notation to medical information resources. This paper
focuses of the effects of the major three bibliographic and information retrieval tools and techniques used for medical
information organization.
These Tools Are: Library of congress classification scheme (NLC), National library of Medicine classification
scheme (NLMC) and Dewey decimal classification scheme (DDC).


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Based on the previous knowledge of spontaneously fermenting maize for the preparation of Ogi,
four growth media were used for the isolation of the different common group of organisms
implicated. Yeasts and Molds were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida sp.,
Rhodotorula sp., Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. The bacteria were Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus lactis, Enterococcus feacalis,
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp., Klebseilla sp., Bacillus
subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Aerobacter sp., and Corynebacteria sp. A sharp
decrease in pH of fermenting gruel from 5.7 to 3.5 was observed within 24 hours while titratable
acidity increases within the first 48 hours with a further increase and decrease in pH and titratable
acidity at 72 hours.These isolates were subjected to pH ranges of 3.5 – 6 and all were able to grow
at optimum pH 6 with a reduction in the number of isolates as pH reduces. Growth in temperature
ranging from 250C to 500C, salt (NaCl, MgS04, K2HP04, CuS04 and ZnS04) and sugar (glucose,
sucrose, lactose, melibiose and raffinose) concentrations of 0.2% to 1% were carried out on all the
isolates. With increase in temperature and salt concentration, a reduction in the number of isolates
that grew was observed. From this study, the optimum conditions that favours the growth of all the
group of organisms was found to be pH 6, 300C, 0.2% of the salts used and a significant population
of all the group of organisms utilized glucose as their best carbon source.


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Sachet water is the ultimate source of drinking water in Nigeria. Twelve brands of sachet water
vended in Ugbor village, Oredo Local Government Area, Benin City were analysed to determine
the sensory properties, pH and the bacteriological quality using standard methods. Antibiotic
susceptibility profile of the bacteria isolates was carried out using the disc diffusion method. All
the samples were clear and odourless. The pH readings of the water samples ranged between 5.0
and 7.2. Bacterial growths were recorded in eleven out of the twelve water samples. The total
heterotrophic count was between 2.2 -8.9×101
cfu/ml. Coliforms were present in six of the water
samples with a count of 2.2-4.3×101
cfu/ml. The isolates were identified as Staphylococcus
aureus, Pseudomonas sp, Aeromonas sp, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Bacillus badius,
Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. Staphylococcus aureus had the highest percentage
occurrence of 24% while Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium sp. had the lowest
percentage occurrence of 8% each. It was observed that all of the isolates were resistant to
Ceftazidime (caz), Cefuroxime (crx), and Augmentin (aug) and sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (cpr)
and Ofloxacin (ofl). Most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin (gen) except for
Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris. Most of the isolates were resistant to
Cefixime (cxm) except for Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus badius.
Eleven of the twelve sachet water samples studied did not meet WHO standard for drinking
water, hence, routine monitoring of producers of sachet water should be enforced.


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Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) Afzel (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicinal practice for the treatment of hypertension. This research is devoted to phytochemical constituents, in particular, some specific alkaloids present in the RV root extract. The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids in this extract. The antioxidant activity of the RV root extract was also evaluated in a series of in vitro assays involving free radicals. The extract exhibited significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect relative to ascorbic acid (p < 0.05, IC50= 98 μg/ml), nitric oxide scavenging effect (50.37 ± 0.4% after 150 min), and metal chelating activity (89.08 ±2.62%). In addition, it exhibited significant ferric reducing power relative to ascorbic acid (p < 0.05). The total content of phenolic substances was 233.3 ± 2.9 mg/g. The extract was also studied for its inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation as a possible mechanism of its aphrodisiac effect, by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in various male-cow tissues incubated in a 5% solution of the RV root extract, distilled water, and antioxidant vitamins C and E upon keeping the samples frozen for 35 days. Tissues incubated in the test solution had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to those in the samples incubated in distilled water. Results obtained from this study indicate that the RV root extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidants.


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The present study aimed at studying the bacteriological quality of African Salads and antibiotics resistance
pattern of isolates before and after plasmid curing to ascertain if the resistance to multiple antimicrobials was
plasmid mediated. The results showed mean Salmonella/Shigella count of the African salad samples ranged
from 25× 105cfu/g to 201× 105cfu/g, Staphylococcal count ranged from 39× 103 cfu/g to 215× 105cfu/g, coliform
count ranged from 27× 103 cfu/g to 215× 105 cfu/g and Listeria count ranged from 6× 103cfu/g to 113×
105cfu/g. The prevalent bacteria were Listeria sp having a 60% occurrence while Escherichia coli had a 30%
occurrence. The species of bacteria isolated were identified as Listeria sp, E. coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp,
Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella sp. All isolate were susceptible to gentamycin and ofloxacin.
Resistance was observed with erythromycin (90.0%), cloaxacilin (70.2%), augmentin (60.5%), ceftazidime
(34.7%) and cefuroxime (22.2%). Plasmid analysis showed that most of the isolates carried plasmids greater
than 10kbp and after plasmid curing the isolates were cured of its resistance to cloxacillin and ceftazidime but
some isolates still retained resistance to erythromycin (25.8%), augmentin (16.9%) and cefuroxime (19.7%).


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The study examined the exchange rate fluctuation, stock market performance and economic growth in Nigeria. The study covers the period 1999 (when democratic rule returned to Nigeria) to the second quarter of 2016. The study adopted VAR Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Wald Tests, VAR approach to derive the variance error decomposition and impulse function response. The empirical results found out that none of the variables has power to predict real growth in Nigeria. However, exchange rate has a causal feedback from growth rate, ASI, money supply and government capital expenditure. The findings also showed a causality flow from consumption to stock prices and exchange rate fairly caused ASI, but there is no causal relationship between inflation and naira value. The study revealed that exchange rate shocks are crucial factors in explaining economic growth and growth in stock market in the long run. It is recommended that conscious efforts should be made by policy makers to reduce exchange rate variability and to encourage improvement in stock market performance. It is also recommended that the continued devaluation of the naira and incessant depreciation of the currency against major foreign currencies should be checkmated by encouraging greater productivity in local commodities in which the country has comparative advantage.


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Stability in price level is one of the main broad objectives of most economies over the world. Therefore, this study investigates the long-run relationship of macroeconomic variables effect on consumer price index from 1st quarter of 1998 to 4th quarter of 2015 and sourced data from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical bulletin. The study adopted Park (1992) Canonical Co-integration regression (CRR) technique of analysis against other studies that used Vector Autoregressive Error Correction Model (VECM), Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Error Correction Model (ECM). The study found out that, in the long-run, macroeconomic variables such as real income, money supply and exchange rate among others contributed positively and significantly to price level, while interest rate exert a negative significant effect. These explanatory variables combined to significantly influence the variations in CPI in Nigeria as much as 98% while the stochastic error term (U1) capture 2%. The study recommends that Nigeria government should pursue with vigour, policies that will enhance the reduction of the general price level and increased productive capacity of goods and services. Such policies may include wage control/freeze, monetary policy (reduction in money supply), good management of foreign exchange, total ban on importation of some goods and increase in domestic production of goods and services.


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This study examines the patterns and impacts of rice production and technological efficiency on economic growth in some selected countries. Data used for the study covered the period 1990-2015 and were all obtained from Word Bank Development Index online.  Descriptive and panel data techniques were employed in the analysis. The Panel regression results reveals that the F-statistics value for the fixed effect model exceeds (65.20) that of the Pooled OLS (58.1) at 1% level of significance, necessitating the adoption of the fixed effect model, with an adjusted Rvalue of 0.86. The empirical findings reveal that the countries exhibit differential rates of technology, necessitating some of the countries having technological efficiency values higher than the mean value of the entire sampled countries. The results further show that rice production index and technological efficiency are positive and significant to stimulating economic growth in the sampled countries. Hence, domestic production of rice induces positive spill-overs on income, employment and poverty reduction.   We recommend rice production enhancement policies as well is increased technological know-how should be encouraged in order to enhance economic growth in these countries


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In a time when establishing and maintaining of market advantage is crucial in the world at large and in the hotel business in particular, the use of technical innovation such as the hotel reservation system becomes a competitive necessity in the hotel busi-ness. This leads to digitalizing this business and improving its operations. In view of this, this paper has provided an overview of Ho-tel Reservation System (HRS), provided a digital design for the such system. It also discusses the advantages associated with integrat-ing the system across the hotel business and what and where the potential gains are in Nigeria. The hotel reservation system developed in this work, when fully implemented, will go a long way to addressing the problem faced by the hotel management in the area of managing their customer’s booking, management of customer’s information and having quick access to information.


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Lack of adequate health data monitoring system has led to the death of many patients in hospitals across the
country. The inadequacy of this system poses a serious problem in the health sector. Doctors and other
healthcare professionals find it difficult to transmit ascertained health issues of many patients particularly in
emergency situations. To improve the situation, there is need to develop information system to enhance the
performance of our healthcare professionals to deliver quality healthcare services. In this paper, we present a
conceptual model for developing an integrated health data monitoring system using Unified Modelling
Language (UML). When fully implemented, the model can be used to monitor citizens’ health issues in
Nigeria.


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The e-banking systems in Nigeria is witnessing a large number of users, thereby encouraging the cashless economy policy proposed by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Hence, these systems need to be highly secured and reliable. This is because any compromise by this system can breach the customer’s trust in using such systems for making transactions thereby discouraging the cashless policy agenda. Based on this the CBN is proposing the use of fingerprint biometric as a means of identification of any bank customer in Nigeria. However, since most fingerprint biometric systems can accept and grant access to artificial fingerprint, it is therefore clear that only fingerprint will not be suitable in securing banking system. Thus, the primary research objective of this paper is to propose a multifactor biometric model that would assist in creating a highly secured banking application in Nigeria using human physiological features. Based on the verification carried out on the model presented in this paper, it can therefore be sanctify to providing highly secured banking system in Nigeria if fully implemented.


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Acute toxicity of four heavy metals and two pesticides on a fresh water snail, Melanoides
tuberculatus (Gastropod, Thiaridae) was investigated. Adult M tuberculatus was exposed
for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of heavy metal: Arsenic (As),
Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and pesticides: Cypermethrin and Chlopyrifos.
The median lethal concentration, LC50 values for the 96-hour exposure to As, Cu, Cd and
Pb were 6.24, 8.60, 15.22 and 1082.10mg/l respectively, while the LC50 values for the 96-
hour exposures to Chlopyrifos and Cypermethrin were 2.45and 3.81ml/l respectively.
Arsenic was the most toxic heavy metal to M. tuberculatus, followed by Cu, Cd and Pb
(As>Cu>Cd>Pb).
Between the two pesticides under study, chlopyrifos was found more toxic than
cypermethrin. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentration (LC50) was
calculated. Mortality increased with the increase in mean exposure concentration and
times for all metals and pesticides. No mortality was recorded for the control as all the
values obtained were zero.
This study indicates that M tuberculatus is sensitive to heavy metals and pesticides and
therefore can be used to monitor the presence of pollutants at low concentration levels in
waterbody.


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Relationship marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long term value of customer relationships and extends communication beyond intrusive advertising and sales promotional messages. Relationship marketing and traditional (or transactional) marketing are not mutually exclusive and there is no need for a conflict between them. A relationship oriented marketer still has choices at the level of practice, according to the situation variables. Most firms blend the two approaches to match their portfolio of products and services. This study long-term customer relationship building and maintenance in the Seed industry, Primary data was used for this study which was generated through structured closed ended questionnaires. Chi-square was employed to test the research hypothesis. The result reveal that relationship building is significant to customer satisfaction and retention. 

 


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The focus of this paper is on managerial approach to conflict management in an organization.
The objectives of this study is to ascertain what constitute conflict, sources of conflict, views
of conflict, consequences of conflict in an organization and the strategies for dealing with
organizational conflict etc. To effectively examine how conflict management will improve
organizational performance, the study relies mainly on secondary data from textbook,
internet, journals etc. The study reveals that conflict is endemic in human life’s and cannot not
totally be eradicated rather its effect can be minimized so as to ensure that it does not hinder
the activities of the organization by way of reducing performance. The paper recommends
amongst others that managers at all levels should acquaint themselves with potential causes of
conflict in their organization and address them early enough to forestall activities that will
hamper the smooth running of the organization.


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Health and safety management is about commitment to and providing conducive
working environment to employees. Human resources department plays a
prominent role in ensuring employee’s health and safety as they discharge their
duties in the workplace. This study examines the importance of health and safety
in workplace, safety and health hazard, stress and its causes, consequences of
stress at workplace, strategies for making the workplace safer, risk assessment,
managing health and safety among others. The objective of this study is to ascertain
the essence of health and safety in the work environment. It is a truism that a
healthy man is a wealthy man and for an organisation to achieve its goals its
workforce must be fit physically and mentally to carry out their tasks. The study
observes that the health of the workforce is an immense valuable asset to the
organization and should not only be preserved but should be fostered. The
findings of this research reveal that for organisations to be productive and
profitable, adequate attention must be given to the wellbeing of the work force.
Hence, it is recommended among many others that management should carryout
periodic written safety inspections of the workplace, including follow-up entries
explaining what was done to mitigate all deficiencies.


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This paper analysed the lexical features used by online commenters on the alleged national assembly fuel subsidy bribery scandal. The study employed both primary and secondary sources. The primary source included 120 purposively selected readers’ comments. The secondary source included books, journal, articles and the Internet. The results showed that lexical set, antonyms, lexical repetitions, Nigerian English compounds, name calling, collocations and lexical borrowings were the notable lexical features used by the commenters.


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This paper analysed the syntactic features used by online commenters on the alleged national assembly fuel subsidy bribery scandal. The study employed both primary and secondary sources. The primary source included 120 purposively selected Vanguard Online readers’ comments. Purposive sampling technique was used to select comments that focus on topical issues that bordered on fuel subsidy. The choice of vanguard is based on the peculiar nature of the comments posted on the site. The secondary source included books, journal, articles and the internet. The data selected were analysed using Halliday and Mathiessen’s (2004) Systemic Functional Grammar. This is because SFG is based on the choices that grammar makes available to speakers and writers. The results of the study showed that the dominant syntactic structures such as paratactic constructions, hypotactic constructions, thematisation and verbalised process option were used to achieve equal and unequal arrangement of utterances, and to draw attention to inequality in the society. The study concluded that the commenters’ syntactic choices on the alleged national assembly fuel subsidy committee bribery scandal were shaped by their understanding of the socio-political situation in Nigeria.


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The growth performance and the activities of glycosidases (amylase, cellulase and α-glucosidase) in the foot muscle of giant land snail, Archachatina marginata were examined during aestivation. Aestivation significantly affected the growth performance of the snails as active snails gained 16.4±0.02g while the aestivated snails lost 15.5±0.1g. Three glycosidases were detected in the foot muscle of the snails at varying levels: 33-37 Abs/min (α-glucosidase), 11-15 Abs/min (amylase) and 28-31 Abs/min (cellulase) with the active snails having significantly higher activities (Abs/min) in α-glucosidase and cellulase. Aestivation thus significantly affects the foot muscle activities of A. marginata


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The activities of digestive enzymes in the gut
regions of African giant land snail, Archachatina
marginata were investigated during aestivation
induced in the laboratory by the withdrawal of
water and food for three weeks. All studied
enzymes, amylase, α-glucosidase, cellulase, lipase,
and protease, were detected on the gut regions
(oesophagus, crop, stomach and intestine).
Aestivated snails had significantly lower enzyme
activities in all the gut regions than the active
snails. Furthermore the stomach recorded the
highest enzyme activities of all the gut regions.


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Agricultural wastes such as sugarcane bagasses, maize cob, palm kernel cake, palm oil empty fruit bunches, banana pseudo stem and orange mesocarp have been known to be potential sources of cellulose. From these cellulose sources sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), a water soluble cellulose derivative and an essential raw material in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and detergent industries could be synthesized. Importantly, orange mesocarp generated from orange peel is an abundant agricultural by-product which consists of about 62.5% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative secondary resources for cellulose. In this work, cellulose was extracted from orange mesocarp and then converted to NaCMC. The orange mesocarp was dried and ground to pass 20 mesh screen. Cellulose was extracted using 8% NaOH at 100PoPC for 3.5 hrs and bleached using 3.85% NaOCl at 30PoPC for 3 hrs. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was consequently synthesized from the extracted cellulose by alkalization followed by etherification. The physicochemical properties of the NaCMC were determined in terms of the degree of substitution, viscosity and with the use of FTIR spectroscopy. The NaCMC resulted from this work has a viscosity of 14.0cP at 29.8oC and DS 1.02 and therefore was categorized as technical grade with medium viscosity. After optimization and scaling up of the production process the NaCMC synthesized will be a useful and cheap raw material for the industries.


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The  focus  of  this  paper  is  on  entrepreneurial  development  and  analysis  of  Interventionist Agencies in Nigeria. It examines the critical stages or sphere of development required of the entrepreneur in order to enable him perform his strategic functions in the organization and in the context of organizational strategic management in Nigeria. In pursuit of the focus of this paper, it treats numerous issues (an overview inclusive). It also examines the entrepreneurial roles and factors affecting its strategic management importance. Furthermore it x-rays in detail the three- skill approach to entrepreneurial development. These include technical, human and conceptual skills. It analyzes some government interventionist institutions and agencies established to encourage entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The paper posits that though there is a widespread knowledge of the efficacy of entrepreneurial development mix, integrated entrepreneurial development efforts indicates that several of the institutions established by government concentrated on a partial approach to entrepreneurial development programme. Finally, it concludes and recommends four priorities agenda to enhance the entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.


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The focus of this paper is on the identification of determinants of organizational commitment

and employee job satisfaction. It is viewed as one of the basic concepts describing the relationship between an employee and an organization. In this paper determinant of organizational commitment, factors conditioning development of three organizational commitment components and various variables responsible for employee satisfaction is been discussed. These variables are: Organization development factors, Job security factors, Work task factors, Policies of compensation and benefit factor and opportunities in the organization. Other factors discussed which give satisfaction to employees’ in cl ud e: promotion and career development, equitable rewards and supportive colleagues; also discussed are the various ways by which one can improve employee satisfaction. The main objective of this study is to discuss the above mentioned variables and examine the major determinants of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction and highlight the factors that can enhance employee’s job satisfaction. This paper adopts the exploratory and content methods analysis of various relevant literatures to review the concepts of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction. The paper recommends that Organizational managers should try their best to evaluate why employees leave or what kindles their dissatisfaction.


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The focus of this paper is on the impact of HRM practices on private sector organisations performance in Nigeria. Guinness Nigeria Plc is a private sector driving entity. Its human resource practices can be crucial to its performance. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess whether Guinness’s human resource management practices, particularly recruitment and selection, Staff performance appraisal, compensation, and training and development practices influence its performance. Simple random sampling was used to select eighty employees from Guinness Nig. Plc. T-tests were carried out to examine the relationship between the selected Human Resources practices and organization performance. The results revealed that, from the perceptions of the respondents, there exists a positive relationship between effective recruitment and selection practices, effective performance appraisal practices and Guinness’s performance. The research did not gather sufficient evidence to conclude on how compensation, training and development practices influence organization’s performance. The study recommends that the management of Guinness Nig. Plc continues to ensure that the company’s Human Resources policy, effective recruitment and selection practices, as well as effective performance appraisal practices are upheld.


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Cellulose modifications through grafting of active monomers have been found to enhance the sorption properties of cellulosic agricultural waste materials in the uptake of materials from solutions and in water treatment. Initial compositional analysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a fibrous matter left after cane sugar extraction from sugarcane, showed a cellulose content of 40.21 %; hemicellulose, 25.8 %; lignin, 22.9 %; ash content, 1.72 % and moisture content of 9.41 %. The cellulose was extracted from the SCB using alkaline extraction with sodium hydroxide followed by bleaching with sodium hypochlorite. It gave a cellulose yield of 53.13 %. Acrylamide monomer was grafted unto the cellulose under optimum conditions of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) concentration of 0.015 M, 2 hours reaction time and a monomer to cellulose ratio of 3:1 (w/v). These conditions favoured increase in graft and graft efficiency percent. 


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Women entrepreneurs have become a topical issue due to their influence in global economies and business today, their impact has been felt in most developing countries including Nigeria. Despite these contributions women entrepreneurs still suffer a lot of set back and constraints in exploiting their potentials unlike their male counterparts. There are wide ranges of factors limiting the progress of women entrepreneurs. The objective of this study is to examine the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs that inhibit full utilization of their creativity in Igueben Local government of Edo State, Nigeria. Primary data was used for this study which was generated through structured questionnaires and direct interview from entrepreneurs within Igueben Local Government. ANOVA was employed to test the research hypothesis. Recommendations were made on how to strengthen women entrepreneurs in the Local government and Nigeria at large.


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There is a dangerous vibration among most post-colonial Nigerians that the unity and corporate existence of the modern Nigerian state rest on the delicate political balance between the northern and southern parts of the country. The vibration is often heightened during national engagement especially national elections. The paper is therefore an attempt to remind modern Nigerians that before the British colonial intervention, pre-colonial Nigerian people had evolved a web of mutual understanding centered on socio-economic and political relationship and interdependence. The paper adopted historical approach by concentrating and emphasizing those historical areas of similarities and connectivity among pre-colonial Nigerian people. This approach brings to the fore the convergent rather than divergent elements capable of promoting peaceful co-existence among post-colonial Nigerians.


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The paper draws attention to the need to incorporate some aspects of African pre-colonial judicial practices in post-colonial administration of justice in Africa as that would aid in the mitigation of crisis and conflict through alternative dispute resolution mechanism. This is argued against the backdrop that laws are instruments meant to regulate the society for the purpose of engendering peaceful co-existence. In pre-colonial Africa, the administration of justice rested on the twin connected pillars of reverence for elders and fear of false oath swearing. Using the Uromi of Edo State, Nigeria as a case study, the paper argues that colonial legal tradition in Africa displaced the twin-pillar of pre-colonial justice system with the practice of over reliance on material evidence to determine the outcome of litigation. The paper concludes that the resultant effect is that postcolonial African judicial system is unable to bridge peace among disputants


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This study discusses the peculiar nature of political participation as well as the attendant violence that characterize it in post independent Nigeria. Central to discussion is identification of the various factors which influence electoral violence and the extent to which it has inhibited national cohesion and democratic values. The study concludes that, Nigeria should produce selfless and visionary leaders, educated masses as well as operating within the frame work of true federalism so as to make appreciable improvement on her development strides. The study therefore recommends discouragement of use of money and material gift during elections, reduction of remuneration of political office seekers, commensurate punishment for culprits’ as well as independence of the independent Electoral Commission should be truly granted.


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The ability to respond intelligently to situations is a function of the quality and relevance of education acquired. The African continent is considered as underdeveloped in the international system because of its low level of socio-political and economic development. Why is the continent having this nature of challenges? Various factors may be accountable; however, there is the contention that the nature of colonial education and religion represent one of the gravest uncomplimentary variables to functional education in Africa. Using comparative historical analysis between pre colonial and colonial practices, the paper argues and supports the view that colonialism distorted the African pre colonial educational and religious system. The paper concludes that the African continent may continue to remain in this backward position of underdevelopment until there is an intelligent blend between indigenous and western values in order to re-create a functional system relevant to the African communities. 


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The Nigerian state celebrated its official fiftieth birthday on October 1, 2010. The drums were rolled out for the celebration, but we must pause to ask ourselves, what and why did Nigerian state celebrate? Is it in fulfillment of self rule which began in 1960 or jubilation in terms of national development? The paper is a discussion on the nature of Nigerian politics as it affects the emergence of credible political leadership in the post-colonial era. The paper argued that the dangerous and unproductive temperament of post-colonial Nigerian politics since 1960 has made it possible for weak and primitive accumulative class of leadership to impose itself on the Nigerian state for the past fifty years, thus leading to national underdevelopment in almost all facets. The recently conducted 2011 general elections in Nigeria, though adjudged as one of the best ever conducted in the country, also displayed some variables that have come to historically define electioneering in the country. The paper therefore concluded that for Nigerians to get it right and elect credible political leaders, the various institutions responsible for the sustenance of democracy such as the electoral body, judicial system and security forces should be empowered to perform their duties without any form of government interferences.


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Tony Blair, a former British Prime Minister once described Africa as a ‘scar on the conscience of the world.’ An interpretative commentary on Blair’s remark would mean that Africa is an embarrassment to the comity of progressive nations in the international system because of the high level of underdevelopment caused especially by corruption. The paper therefore seeks to find out the possibility of influencing African political system through the application of Christian morality using Nigeria as a case study. This is against the backdrop of the renewed call by some prominent Nigerian Christians to actively participate in Nigerian politics with the hope that Christian morality may positively colour governmental policies in terms of the provision of quality services to its citizens. The paper adopts a comparative historical methodology to interrogate the synergy between politics and religion within the Nigerian space and find out that as long as Nigerians are unable to blend religious and humanistic values with political participation, the country may continue to remain in the web of political, social and economic underdevelopment. In the light of the above, the paper recommends some of the following; that Christians should form a political party as done in Germany, set up a Christian monitoring group as a watch dog on politicians, adopt the whistle blowing technique that will expose irregularities in the system, churches should avoid exposed corrupt politician, discourage over emphasis on posterity gospel more that righteousness, and refuse any form of patronage from the state.


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Nigerian historiography is divided into three phases: the pre-colonial, colonial and postcolonial periods. Whereas the pre-colonial history is dominated by the political and social activities of the Nigerian people, its pre-colonial political aspects mainly focused on the establishment and growth of communities. Many historians have argued that the pre-colonial establishment of the Uromi community was occasioned by the activities in the Benin kingdom. This paper re-assesses this age-long historical position that the Uromi community of Esanland and the whole of Esan were established by migrants from Benin kingdom. The paper also questioned the intellectual foundation for such popularly accepted account that has determined the nature of Edoid historiography. Though the paper agues that some Benin migrants settled in the Esan area of Nigeria and subsequently influenced Uromi sociopolitical structure, it is however not enough to conclude on that basis that the Esan area, where Uromi is located, is a total creation of Benin. The thesis of this paper therefore questions the widely accepted claim of a Benin hegemonic establishment of Uromi and concludes that such traditions of origin rest on unsubstantiated assumption.


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Whenever Africa is mentioned in the international arena, the name seems to conjure pity, poverty, diseases, corruption, conflicts, maladministration, abuse of human rights and other trappings of vices associated with underdevelopment. This thinking may have influenced Tony Blair’s (former British Prime Minister) comments that Africa is a “scar on the conscience of the world”. This paper therefore argues that the various degrees of developmental challenges confronting contemporary African states were created in the era of colonial administration of the continent. Using the concepts of fundamentalist structuralism to critically analyse the contemporary African developmental challenges, the paper concludes that Africa appears to lack the capacity to deconstruct the philosophical foundation on which colonial structures were erected, and without a radical overture, the African continent may remain in its crawling developmental posture even in the 21st century.


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Access to hygienic water is becoming difficult by the day, especially in developing economies. The people of Uromi in the Esan or Ishan region of Nigeria find it challenging to access drinkable water even in the 21st century. The problem of water has been an issue in Uromi since the pre-colonial era. Before the imposition of British colonial rule in Nigeria, the Uromi people resulted to digging pits to trap running rain water as their main source of water, which of course was unhygienic. Colonial documents obtained from the National Archives Ibadan, Nigeria were analysed and the findings reveals the spirited efforts made by the colonial regime to provide accessible and hygienic water for the people of Uromi. However, the colonial attempt was not very successful because of the Uromi topography, but that attempt improved the quality of water available to the people.


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There seems to be a general rendition that colonial conquered African kings (Chief) accepted their new status and therefore collaborated with the colonial regime in the governance of African conquered states. Some sampled literature on African resistance and eventual workings of colonial administration gives such impression of a docile and incapable chieftaincy that served the colonial authorities without any visible form of protest and resistance. This impression may not be correct as there are evidences to suggest that the African chieftaincy was not as submissive to colonial rule as observed in the case of king Okojie of Uromi, Nigeria who was exiled from his community by the British colonial authorities between 1919 and 1931. The circumstances of Okojie’s deportation and continued colonial policies to keep him outside Uromi created two opposing forces; the centrifugal forces, which represent colonial collaborators while the centripetal forces where those who resisted colonial policies as they concerned the deported Okojie. The research adopted a content analysis approach of colonial archival documents, oral interview and other related literature to interrogate the nature of king Okojie’s resistance to colonial rule in Uromi. The findings reveal that though, Okojie’s circumstances of birth might have influenced his harsh style of governance in the colonial created Native Authority, a fact which was used as an excuse by the British colonial authorities to depose him, however, the actual rationale for his banishment from his land of birth was because of his continued resistance to colonial rule in form of civil disobedience. The discussion raises the need for scholars to research on the nature of responses of the African chieftaincy to their colonial status, and concludes that the deportation of king Okojie should be understood from the broader perspective of the fate of African kings (chiefs) that refused to accept the reality of their tamed authority and powers with the advent of colonial rule.


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Nigerian pre colonial historiography mainly addresses the evolution of states with emphasis on what Obayemi refers to as mega states. The pre colonial kingdom of Benin is regarded in Obayemi’s reckoning as a mega state out of which, other mini states emerged and one of such mini states is the Uromi community in the Esan region of Edo state (Obayemi 202). This present discourse observed that commentators hinged their commentaries on the pre colonial Benin’s extensive territorial coverage within the Benin axis to assume that a monolithic political structure existed, dating back to centuries. Relying on the interpretative historical approach to analyse available accounts and documents, this paper attempts to demonstrate that the Uromi community had developed a complex political structure before the imposition of Benin style monarchical system around the 15th century. The paper concludes that a holistic approach to the study of state creation in the Nigerian geographical space may unearth information that may contribute to understanding the various degrees of inter-group relations among the Nigerian people.


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This study analyzed the state of the Nigerian Agricultural Credit System since 1987 – 2000. It dealt with the problems of financing agricultural projects, the role of agricultural credit institutions such as the Central Bank of Nigeria, the Commercial and Merchant Banks,
specialized lending institutions, the informal agricultural credit agencies such as moneylenders, as well as the impact of sectoral allocation of credit facilities as a monetary policy to the agricultural sector of the economy.
The paper also examined the various policy measures the government introduced to improve on the agricultural sector as well as the various sources of credit that are available to create an effective and efficient agricultural sector


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This study examined the impact of capital market operations on the Nigeria’s economic growth between 1981 and 2014. The prevailing challenges in the World financial markets; especially the capital market, justifies the various forms of reforms going on around the world, Nigeria inclusive. Some capital market variables such as market capitalization, volume of transactions and number of deals served as independent variables while real Gross Domestic Product represented the dependent variable. Secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical bulletin, were utilized in the study. The study adopted the OLS long run estimation and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) as the method of analysis and it was built on Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test and residual based co-integration test. E-views 8
package of the econometrics was used to estimate the data. The results showed that capital market operations positively impacted the growth of the Nigerian economy for the period covered by the study. The study recommends among others that government should periodically
and objectively evaluate activities and reform agenda of the capital market in a manner that will enhance economic growth and development.


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This paper examines the management of foreign exchange services under the Foreign Currency Domiciliary Account scheme and its contributions to the development and growth of Finance of International Trade in Nigeria and globally, International trade involves the exchange of goods and services between nations and settlement of the financial obligations arising from the activities. The operations of the Foreign Currency Domiciliary Account scheme which is one of the modes of settlement of International obligations will be analyzed showing its strengths, weaknesses and constraints. Recommendations would also be offered on the smooth running of the scheme to the development and growth of International trade.. 


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Promoting the growth and development of the Nigeria economy can be influenced by trends of gross fixed domestic investment or indirectly through policies aimed at stimulating the flow of foreign direct investment into the country. This study analyzed the impact of foreign direct investment on Nigeria economic growth from the period of 1990 - 2013. Data used in this study is secondary; sourced from various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, such as; Statistical Bulletin, Annual Reports and Statement of Accounts. The regression analysis of the error correction model is the estimation technique employed in this study to determine the relationship between Direct Foreign Investment on economic growth. The findings showed that the ECM is significant and correctly signed. Foreign direct investment has significant relationship with economic growth. The paper recommended that government should create macroeconomic policies that would attract and retain FDI in the country.  Also, financial markets and institutions should be strengthened and effectively regulated.


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This paper attempts to showcase the evolution and concept of traditional banking system in Esanland.  It  will also examine the advantages, disadvantages and contributions of the traditional and modern banking systems in Esanland to the micro-economic development of Esaanland in particular and the nation in general.  Even though the introduction of technology such as Automated Teller Machines (ATM), debit and credit cards, etc. has contributed in no small measure to the effectiveness and efficiency of the modern banking system, one should not consider the traditional banking system as useless.  The impact and contributions of both systems to national economic development will  be considered


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A reciprocally re-enforcing relationship exists between institutions, foreign direct investment and economic growth. Sound institutional framework which supports foreign direct investment is significant for driving rapid Economic growth. An important factor that has undermined rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak institutional structure, decrepit state capacity and low level of foreign direct investment in Nigeria. Democratic structures reflected in the rule of law, effectiveness and predictability of the judiciary and enforceability of contracts proceedings is imperative for accelerating economic growth. Employing the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation techniques on annual time series data covering the period from 1981 to 2015, the relationship between these variables was empirically investigated. The empirical findings reveal that democratic institutions and foreign direct investment are significant variables influencing economic growth in Nigeria. In particular, the results, using Nigerian data, show that weak institutions have a destabilizing impact on growth. The impact of FDI on the other hand is found to be positive and significant. Therefore, sound institutional framework, as well as appropriate and consistent macroeconomic policies that encourage foreign direct investment to propel rapid economic growth in Nigeria needs to be put in place.


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Abstract
Water is a universal solvent, needed to sustain life. This study revealed the extent of microbial contamination in Ujiogba River, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. Forty – two water samples from three sampling points along the course of the river were collected and analysed from January to April, 2012, to determine the river’s microbial load. Seven bacterial isolates identified include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The fungal isolates included Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. The bacterial counts ranged from 21 to 96 x102cfu/ml, with the highest frequency of occurrence in Escherichia coli (25.81%) and least in Salmonella sp. (4.84%). The microbial load of water collected downstream was significantly different from the other sampling points. The pH and temperature ranged between 6.8±0.28 to 7.7±1.64 and 28±1.63°C to 35± 2.16°C, respectively. The water was contaminated and did not meet the minimum standard requirement of drinking water as prescribed by the World Health Organisation and United States Environmental and Protection Agency. The microorganisms isolated are capable of causing a lot of waterborne diseases. There is need for continuous monitoring so as to improve water quality and safeguard consumers from the impending public health diseases outbreak.


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Abstract: This study revealed the microbial contamination of Naira notes in relation to season as well the
antibiogram on224 pieces of Naira notes collected from some village markets in Esan Land. Five naira (N5), Ten
naira (N10) and One Thousand naira (N1000) had contamination rates of 19.43%, 17.72% and 5.33% respectively.
The contamination rates were 23.51% for Ujiogba, 21.12% for Ogwa and 16.99% for Ekpon markets. Among the
gram positive isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis had antimicrobial resistance rate of 86.70% against ampicillin
and Staphylococcus aureushad the least of 30.00% against amoxicillin. Among the gram negative isolates,
Escherichia coli had resistance rate of 90.00% against ampicillin while Proteus sp. had the least of 40.00% against
augumentin. The study has revealed that the lower denominations of Naira notes had higher microbial contamination
rate during the rainy season than the dry season at p<0.05. This work recommend Education/enlightenment on
proper handling/storage of Naira notes and personal hygiene would asa way out.


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The ancient town of Sagamu in the old Ijebu-Remo Province is a household name regarding the cultivation and production of kolanutscola nitida (gbanja), especially the white variety, in the whole of South-Western Nigeria. This species of kolanuts attracted some itinerant Hausa kolanuts merchants in large number from the north to the town between 1910 and 1970. This paper examines the impact of kolanuts trade on the socio-economic development of Sagamu. It sheds light on the origins of gbanja kola; types of the nuts involved in commercial transactions; and the volume of the trade in Sagamu. In the course of this study, primary and secondary sources, which have been critically assessed and evaluated were used without necessarily undermining the historicity of the subject-matter. The paper concluded with the lessons to be drawn from the trade by contemporary Sagamu society and Nigeria in general.


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   The paper seeks to unveil the historical antecedent of the phenomenon of ethnic militancy in Nigeria premised on the high level of deprivation, marginalization, injustice, corruption and inequitable distribution of natural resources; especially among different levels of government and the political class which are deduced to be harbinger of youth restiveness and ethnic militia. The paper employs the use of historical methodology to depict the moribund consequences of the phenomenon to the nascent democracy, and presupposes that the 1999 constitution was fatally flawed. In the corollary, the paper posited that until a new constitution is drawn up by Nigerians through an all inclusive, process-led, open and transparent mechanism, the search for a panacea for an enduring democratic order and nation building remains a mirage.


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