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The study examined the effect(s) of capital inflow, agricultural output on economic
growth in Nigeria. The study embraced annual time-series data spanning from 1986 to
2019 and employed the fully modified ordinary least square (FM-OLS) technique.
Variables used in the study are gross domestic product per capital income (LGDPPC),
foreign direct investment inflow (FDI), official development assistance (LOAD),
agricultural output (LAGROUT) and exchange rate (EXR). The study showed that
exchange rate (EXR) is negative and statistically significant, while on the contrary,
foreign direct investment inflows (LFDI) also showed a negative and statistically not
significant in the model. Consequently, the study discovered that positive and significant
relationship exists between agricultural output (LAGROUT) and official development
assistance (LOAD) for the period of study. The finding showed that the coefficient of
interaction between agricultural output and foreign direct investment (LAGROUT*
LFDI) is significant and has the expected sign. The study therefore, recommended that
government should put in place a strategy for attracting more foreign investors capable
of generating a higher volume of private investment that can have a significant impact
on agricultural output.


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Le concept stylistique linguistique a à voir avec une étude stylistique qui s'appuie fortement sur les « règles scientifiques » du langage dans son analyse. Ces règles en globe ont les catégories lexicales, grammaticales, des figures de style, du contexte et de la cohésion.
Cet article nous montre comment Ahmadou Kourouma a pu utiliser son français ivoirien, français africain dans son roman intitulé Allah n’est pas obligé. Le but cette recherche est de faire une analyse stylistique de ce roman en utilisant le modèle analytique développé par Leech et Short comme approche majeure de cette étude. Par conséquence linguistique , l’auteur a pu manipuler la structure de la langue française afin d’atteintre son objectif.


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Recently, scientists at the University of California discovered 109 compounds through suspect screening of about 3500 industrial chemicals on pilot data from 30 paired maternal and cord serum samples. According to the researchers, fifty five of these compounds have not been reported in any literature and there is paucity of information about their sources or use. Considering the number of chemical agents humans are exposed to today, this is an expected event.


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Essential oils contain bioactive compounds and studies indicate diverse applications in food storage as antioxidants. Due to varying quantitative composition, it is important to identify the active ingredients and assess their individual antioxidant capacities while also considering their pharmacokinetic properties. Bioinformatics play essential role in the prediction of bioactivity as well as the toxicity of novel compounds. In this study, the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Monodora myristica was predicted in silico using PASS. Systemic ADMET evaluation in the categories: physiochemical property, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, of the two top-scoring compounds were analyzed using the ADMETlab free web interface. These compounds were studied alongside standard synthetic and natural antioxidants to obtain pharmacokinetic data. The parameter ‘reductant’ was observed as high scoring probable activity among the standard antioxidant compounds. E-beta-ocimene and carvacrol scored the highest probable activity among the compounds studied. Pharmcokinetic properties of the two compounds were mostly optimal. The outcome of this in silico study provides fore knowledge to the ADMET profile of the compounds and will be useful in planning research to study their application in oxidation-induced food spoilage during cold preservation.


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Cet article vise à étudier les problèmes de compréhension de lecture rencontrés par les étudiants de l’Université de Samuel Adegboyega. Cette étude vise également à mieux comprendre les facteurs affectant la compréhension en lecture des étudiant. À cette fin, nous avons utilisé un questionnaire qui comprend des énoncés généraux sur les principaux problèmes auxquels les étudiants sont confrontés dans la compréhension de la lecture. Les participants sont 20 (vingt) étudiants 10 (dix) hommes et 10 (dix) femmes) du Département des langues de l’Université de Samuel Adegboyega. Les résultats de l'étude ont révélé qu'il y avait des différences statistiquement significatives entre les étudiants de genre masculin et féminin en ce qui concerne leurs problèmes de compréhension de lecture.
 


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Cet article vise à étudier les problèmes de compréhension de lecture rencontrés par les étudiants de l’Université de Samuel Adegboyega. Cette étude vise également à mieux comprendre les facteurs affectant la compréhension en lecture des étudiant. À cette fin, nous avons utilisé un questionnaire qui comprend des énoncés généraux sur les principaux problèmes auxquels les étudiants sont confrontés dans la compréhension de la lecture. Les participants sont 20 (vingt) étudiants 10 (dix) hommes et 10 (dix) femmes) du Département des langues de l’Université de Samuel Adegboyega. Les résultats de l'étude ont révélé qu'il y avait des différences statistiquement significatives entre les étudiants de genre masculin et féminin en ce qui concerne leurs problèmes de compréhension de lecture.
 


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Previous studied had identified that migrants’ remittances are too weak to stimulate economic
growth in emerging economies. It is in the realization of this problem that this study examined the
interaction effect of migrants’ remittances and financial development on economic from 1986-2019
in Nigeria.
The study employed Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillip Peron (PP) unit root test, Johansen
Co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model technique (VECM).
Both the ADF and PP indicated that real-GDP, migrants' remittance, financial development index, the
interaction of migrants' remittance and financial development index, and trade openness were
integrated of order ( = 1). Also, the co-integration relationship was confirmed by the Johansen
technique. The VECM confirmed that interaction of migrants' remittance and financial development
index and trade openness were directly related to real-GDP; while migrants' remittance inflow was
indirectly related to it with their t-statistics (2.21160), (1.82206) , (2.19183) greater than t-values at
(t0.05= 2.042) and (t0.1 = 1.697) respectively. Also, financial development index exhibited an inverse
relationship but non-significance.
This study therefore, concluded that the extent to which migrants’ remittances influence economic
growth in Nigeria depends on how developed her financial market. It was recommended that the
Central bank of Nigeria (CBN) should reduce charges on migrants' remittance inflow to Nigeria in line
with other African countries to discourage remittances sending through informal channels. The CBN
is also encouraged to improve her regulatory framework such as financial instruments, the payment
system, financial services and financial institutions in line with 21st century standards.


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The central objective of this study is to analyses the effect of public expenditure on infrastructure and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1986 to 2018. This study engaged annual time –series data and the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) estimation techniques. The upshots revealed that governments’expenditure on education and transport & communication serviceshave positive and significant effects on economic growth in Nigeria. Specifically, a unit per cent increase in expenditure oneducation andtransport & communication services will bring about 1049.956 and 296.6 per cent increase in economic growth in Nigeria. The coefficient of government spending on defense is negatively linked and statistically significant at 5% level to economic growth, while expenditure on health is negative and statistically not significant, implying that government has not put sufficient funds on the health sector of Nigerian in line with the requirement of international organizations. The study concludes that economic growth is strongly influenced by education and transport & communication services in Nigeria. The study, hence, recommended that Nigeria government should increase her spending on defense, education, health, and transport & communication services because they represent critical  sectors of economy that require enhanced funding for robust economic growth in Nigeria.


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The study is an examination of how accessible financial services are, especially the
microfinance for women in Akoko areas of Ondo State. The target population was 400
women in the study area, which includes all the four local government areas of Akoko
area. The researchers used both the descriptive and logit regression techniques. The
descriptive statistics revealed that majority of the respondents (31%) received lower
monthly income below N 20,000. Also, 36% of the respondents had access to deposit
money bank, microfinances (41%), ATMs (13%), POSs (7%), mobile agent (2%) and 1%
for other forms of financial services. The logit regression showed that 33.6% of the
respondents were likely to experience decline in poverty level compared to people that
are financially excluded in the areas, 14.9% women are likely to be poorer than their
male counterparts when they are financially excluded and empowerment of women
reduced poverty level by 25.0%. The researchers concluded that women in the four local
government areas of Akoko in Ondo state have access to financial services through
microfinance, which has reduced the severity of poverty among them. And it was,
therefore, recommended that Central Bank of Nigeria should deepen financial inclusion
through the introduction of capital encouragement funds with little interest rate that
microfinance banks would be the ones to introduce it to their customers. Also,
microfinance banks should embrace the aspect of non-financial services.


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Naturally occurring attenuation process for restoration of crude oil impacted soil is dependent on the crude oil transformation capabilities of indigenous microorganisms that are ubiquitous in the soil. This potential of the microbes can be explored in the design of a remediation strategy to manage crude oil pollution in the soil.
In this study, microbes including bacteria and fungi were isolated from an aged crude oil polluted soil and characterized using morphological and biochemical methods. The potential of the microbial isolates to utilize and degrade crude oil was evaluated in liquid medium using turbidity assay and estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH).
Microbial screening revealed the presence of microbial genera including bacteria and fungi in the aged crude oil polluted soil with ability to utilize and degrade crude oil in liquid medium. The probable identity of the indigenous microorganisms ranked in their increasing capacity to utilize and degrade crude oil was: Enterobacter ˂ E. coli ˂ Micrococcus ˂ Aeromonas ˂ Corynebacterium ˂ Bacillus ˂ Pseudomonas (bacteria) and Fusarium ˂ Penicillium ˂ Aspergillus (Fungi).
These microbial isolates especially Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium with high oleophilic abilities are effective candidates that can be used as microbial consortium in bioremediation plan for the restoration of the crude oil impacted soil.


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Essential oils are gaining attention as natural substitutes for synthetic antioxidant compounds due to uncertainties about their toxicity. In this study, lean meat (liver and kidney tissues) from beef, were freeze preserved after treatment with Aframomum angustifolium seed essential oil and butylated hydroxytoluene dissolved in soya bean oil. Three sample groups were used for the study; essential oil treated group (test), butylated hydroxytoluene treated group (positive control) and soya bean oil group (normal control). At an interval of three days, malondialdehyde concentration was measured by spectrophotometry in the three groups for twenty-four days to ascertain the level of lipid peroxidation. The result of the study indicated a steady increase in malondialdehyde concentration in normal control and test groups of kidney tissue from day 3-15. The concentration peaked at 3.136 ng/g and 3.046 ng/g respectively. Positive control group peaked on day 9 at 3.115 ng/g. A decline was observed in all kidney tissue groups in the remaining days of the experiment. A similar trend was observed in the liver tissue. The essential oil demonstrated antioxidant capacity significantly higher (p<0.05) than butylated hydroxytoluene from day 3-9. Malondialdehyde concentration in the test and positive control groups peaked at 3.061 ng/g and 3.102 ng/g respectively on day 12. Normal control group peaked earlier at 3.37 ng/g on day 9. The results of this study indicate that Aframomum angustifolium seed essential oil has capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation in freeze-stored lean meat.


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The continued use of potassium bromate in some food and cosmetic products in Nigeria against regulatory provision
has continually exposed Nigerians to its deleterious effect. The mechanism of bromate induced damage in the liver
and kidney is through oxidative stress. Phytochemicals have antioxidant capacity and have gained research interest in
the management of oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of the ethanol extract of Aframomum angustifolium seed
on kidney and liver damage induced by exposure to an acute dose of potassium bromate was measured using
appropriate biomarkers. Eighteen male Wistar rats, randomly divided into 3 groups were used for the study. Group I
(normal control) received distilled H2O; Group II (positive control) received 400 mg/kgbw bromate once while Group III
(test) received same acute dose as Group II but thereafter treated with an oral dose of ethanol extract (750 mg/kgbw)
for 10days. Half the populations of each group were sacrificed on day 3 while the remaining was sacrificed on day 10
of treatment. Liver and kidney tissues as well as blood samples were collected for analysis. Biochemical parameters;
malondialdehyde, creatinine, electrolytes (Na+ and K+) concentration as well as catalase, alanine aminotransferase
and alkaline phosphatase activities were measured using standard spectrophotometric procedures. In the kidney
tissue, malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in all groups from day 3 to day 10 but was highest in
Group II. A similar trend was observed in the liver tissue but only group III increased significantly. Catalase activity
was inhibited in Group II in both kidney and liver tissues and was significantly lower than test group. Serum Na+
decreased and K+ increased respectively but Group III were comparable to the Group I. Creatinine concentration
increased in all groups but was highest in Group II though it was not significant. ALP activity was significantly higher
(p<0.05) in Group III on day 3 compared to Group I but was not significantly different (p>0.05) on day 10. The results
of this study suggests that ethanol extract of Aframomum angustifolium seeds can accelerate the in vivo repair of
bromate induced hepato- and reno- toxicity in Wistar rats.


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The aim of this study is to assess the activity concentration of radionuclides and the possible health risk associated with exposure to radiation from the soil samples collected from two higher institutions in Esan land of Edo State, Nigeria. The gamma spectrometry system was used to determine the activity concentrations of radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the surface soil samples. The activity concentration of radionuclides ranged from  to   for 40K, from  to   for 238U, and from  to for 232Th. The measured mean activity concentration of radionuclides for 40K, 238U, and 232Th from the examined topsoil of Samuel Adegboyega University was 57.80 ± 1.7; 2.07 ± 0.09  and 6.89 ± 0.34  respectively. At the neighbouring higher institution; College of Education, Igueben, the mean activity concentration of 40K, 238U, and 232Th in its surface soil were 30.19 ± 1.22, 1.41 ± 0.07, and 4.85 ± 0.28  respectively. The total mean values for radiation dose estimation for Radium Equivalent Activity, Absorbed Dose, Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk, Outdoor and Indoor Annual Effective Dose Equivalent are 13.20, 6.03, 0.026, 7.40, and 29.60 respectively. These values were found to be lower than the global average values. Hence, there is no radiation-induced health threat to the students and members of staff in the study area.


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Water occupies about 75% of the earth surface, yet access to portable water remains the most daunting task for
everyone due to its frequent contamination. The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water
samples from Okokpon River was determined on a monthly basis between October, 2011 and May, 2012.
Routine laboratory procedures were employed in water analyses. The physicochemical parameters recorded
were all lower than SON and WHO limit except turbidity (1.73±0.33 to 7.42±1.51NTU), iron (0.76±0.15 to
1.35±0.27mg/l) and lead (0.76±0.15 to 1.35±0.27). Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, alkalinity,
potassium and total hardness showed significant difference (p < 0.05) at the downstream. The heterotrophic
bacterial and fungal counts ranged from 2.16 to 5.89 ×105cfu/ml and 3.01 to 3.69×105cfu/ml respectively with
the highest at downstream which also had a significant difference for the heterotrophic bacterial counts
(P<0.05). The coliform and Escherichia coli counts ranged from 35 to 180 MPN/100ml and 6 to 50 MPN/100ml
respectively with the highest at the midstream. Enterobacter aerogenes and Aspergillus niger had the highest
frequency of occurrence, 5.56% and 7.82% for bacterial and fungal isolates at midstream and upstream
respectively. Plasmids were detected in Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter
and Streptococcus species which ranged from 2027bp to 23130bp. The water had higher turbidity, iron, lead
and microbial values than the SON and WHO limits. Therefore, it is not suitable for drinking except treatment
by at least boiling. Members of the community are advised to halt indiscriminate pollution of the water body
to prevent further contamination.


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The cyanide component of cassava mill effluent (CME) is highly toxic to man and its environment. This research was aimed at biodegrading cyanide from cassava mill effluent with various concentrations of cyanide, variable pH
values, inoculum size and phenol. The heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts were 6.32 x 108±0.01cfu/ml and 2.87 x 108±0.11cfu/ml, respectively. The microorganisms isolated and characterized were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas, sp. Salmonella sp., Corynebacterium sp., Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Saccharomyces sp. The physicochemical parameters: pH (4.81), electrical conductivity (4860uS/cm), cyanide (17.13 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (2041.20
mg/l), biological oxygen demand (1490.08mg/l), total dissolved solids (2478.60 mg/l), Chromium (19.44 mg/l), Manganese (136.08mg/l), Iron (340.20 mg/l) and Nickel (121.50 mg/l) were above the Federal Environmental Protection Agency standard for effluent discharge. Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Aspergillus species which had the highest turbidity values with enrichment medium supplemented with 1% cyanide were used for the batch biodegradation studies. Pseudomonas sp. had the best degradative ability of all isolates used even in the presence of phenol, an inhibitory substance. However, of all the varied substrate concentration used, 30ppm with other conditions remaining constant gave the highest degradative ability of 32.73% at a residence time of 8 days. Also, the highest biodegradation rate of 74.5% and 71.03% were achieved at pH, 6 and inoculum size of 6ml respectively at a
residence time of 8days for 30ppm while other parameters were kept constant. The findings revealed that Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Aspergillus sp. could be utilized for remediating cassava mill effluent contaminated environment containing cyanide.


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Herbicides not only control weeds but also affect soil microorganisms which are responsible for numerous biological processes essential for crop production. The study aimed at determining the effect of herbicide contaminated soils on its physicochemical, microbiological and some enzymatic properties. Standard methods were used for soil sampling and analyses. The physicochemical parameters recorded were pH (5.17 – 5.41), electrical conductivity (98.00 – 237.00 uS/cm), particle size (89.21 – 91.11%) and heavy metals with iron being the highest at all contaminated locations (44.10 – 106.65 mg/kg). There was high significant difference in physicochemical parameters at locations A, C and E (P<0.001). The three impact assessment indices revealed the same pattern of heavy metals contamination; Pb2+ > Cr2+ > Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Mn2+ > Ni2+. Location E had the highest heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts of 4.19 x 106 and 1.85 x 106 cfu/g, respectively while location A had the least of 2.78 x 106 cfu/g and 1.13 x 106cfu/g for bacterial and fungal respectively. The microorganisms identified were Pseudomonas fluoriscens, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, 13.64%; Bacillus sp. 11.36%; Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium, Rhizopus and Candida species, 9.09%; Serratia sp. 6.82% and Escherichia coli, 4.55%. Pseudomonas flouriscens produced the highest enzyme, maltase with concentrations of 0.313, 0.407, 0.421 and 0.429 mg/ml at days 2, 4, 6, and 8, respectively closely followed by invertase with 0.363, 0.421 and 0.429 mg/ml at day 4, 6 and 8, respectively. Herbicide application had negative impact on the soil properties studied. This study recommends that maltase, invertase and amylase enzymes produced by Pseudomonas fluoriscens could be employed as biocatalysts for treating herbicide contaminated soils so as to guarantee environmental safety and public health for all.


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Radon contributes radiation dose to the human body either when inhaled or ingested in drinking water. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of radon concentration in drinking water and to estimate the annual effective dose of ingestion of water samples around a tourmaline mining site in Budo-Are, Itesiwaju Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study location is sited in the basement complex of Nigeria. The major source of water for domestic purposes which includes drinking is the well water, stream, and boreholes without any meaningful treatment. A total of 10 water samples were collected from the study site and were assayed using a well-calibrated active electronic detector (RAD7) connected to accessories. The measured concentration of radon in the samples is in the range 3.79 ± 0.53 Bq/L to 19.86 ± 1.77 Bq/L, with a mean value of 8.05 ± 0.96 Bq/L. The estimated mean annual effective doses of ingested 222Rn for different age groups are 25.56 ± 2.69, 19.48 ± 2.05, and 42.56 ± 5.58 Sv/y for adults, children, and infants respectively. The values are below 0.1 mSv which is the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of the committed effective dose reported by the World Health Organization (2004). Hence, the consumption of water investigated in the study site have no severe health implications on the human populace.


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This study evaluated the ability of ethanol extract of Aframomum angustifolium seeds to ameliorate the nephrotoxic effect of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in rats. Biochemical alterations following co-administration of extract with 30 mg/kgbw KBrO3 were monitored in four animal groups (3 rats/group). Oral administration lasted for 28 days. Biomarkers were monitored using standard spectrophotometric methods. Kidney SOD and CAT activities, as well as serum HCO3- and creatinine levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treated groups than in the positive control group. Photomicrographs of kidney tissue support the biochemical observations. These findings suggest that the extract mitigated bromate-induced kidney lesions in the treated rats.


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Water is the second essential factor for life after oxygen and it offers a number of benefits and services to man and his environment. The effect of human activities on the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of water samples from Ujiogba River was carried out using standard techniques. The concentrations of physicochemical parameters; electrical conductivity (17.5 ± 4.30 μS/cm), colour (0.07± 0.04), sulphate (0.88 ± 2.15 mg/l), nitrate (0.19 + 2.27 mg/l) and phosphate (0.56 ± 0.45 mg/l) were higher at the midstream. Iron had the highest concentration of all heavy
metals analysed at the midstream (0.12 ± 1.37 mg/l) although all heavy metals were below the SON / FEPA limit. The midstream had the highest mean counts for heterotrophic bacterial and coliform counts of 6.33 ± 0.40 x 106 cfu/ml and 4.28 ± 0.52 x 106cfu/ml respectively, which were higher than the WHO recommended limit of 100 cfu/ml and 0cfu/ml for heterotrophic bacterial and coliform counts respectively. The bacterial isolates identified were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella (12.68%), Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, Staphylococcus (11.27%) and Bacillus, Micrococcus,
Enterobacter sp (9.86%, 9.86%, 9.68%) respectively. The midstream showed a significant difference for electrical conductivity, turbidity and coliform counts (P<0.05). Antibiotics resistance profile revealed multiple resistance patterns. Consumers of the water are advised to reduce the human activities in Ujiogba river so as to prevent continuous pollution of the water body 


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ICTs are vital technologies for the development of agricultural sector in Nigeria. Its usage has created wealth to many, both in developed and developing countries. The study evaluated the usage of ICT in agricultural practices and determined factors influencing its usage among farmers in Esan community of Edo State, Nigeria. Data used for the study were generated from a sample of 75 respondents using structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data collected were analysed using inferential statistical method. The result of ANOVA analysis revealed that factors limiting the use of ICT on farming activities among small scale farmers in the community include inability of farmers to use ICT (0.017 ≤ 0.05), lack of technological infrastructure (0.012 ≤ 0.05), cost of technology (0.039 ≤ 0.05), fear of technology (0.015 ≤ 0.05), time to spend on technology (0.026 ≤ 0.05), value of ICT (0.011 ≤ 0.05) and trustworthiness (0.007 ≤ 0.05). These factors are significant at 0.05 level of significance and tend to have varying impact on the adoption of ICT with respect to age, implying that lower age group tend to favour factors such as: time spent on technology, value of ICT and trustworthiness, while higher age group are compatible with technological infrastructure and the inability to use ICT. The study concluded that the adoption of ICT begins at lower age group, While, at higher age group, this tendency tends to decline. The study recommends that aggressive policy of digital revolution should be lunch in the community and could re-orient farmers and make them conversant with the beneficial effect of ICT in agricultural process.


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The increasing anthropogenic disposal of untreated sewage causes major damage to the ecosystem. This study assessed sewage from Ogwa and Ebelle communities for its physicochemical and microbial qualities. Standard methods were used for the analyses. The physicochemical parameters had low concentrations except pH (5.27±0.03 – 5.76±0.20), nitrate (15.42±0.01 – 62.30±0.11mg/l), phosphate (12.28±0.28 – 75.40±0.46mg/l), Chemical oxygen demand (542.87±0.18 – 1850.11±0.14mg/l), Biochemical oxygen demand (198.63±0.18 – 497.62±0.03mg/l), zinc (4.12±0.12 – 10.38±0.02mg/l), nickel (5.82±0.21 – 25.22±0.12mg/l), chromium (1.45±0.10 – 4.12±0.01mg/l) and lead (1.11±0.02 – 2.43±0.03mg/l) which were higher than FEPA recommended limit. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sewage samples were statistically significantly different compared to the control (p<0.05). The heterotrophic bacterial, coliform and fungal counts ranged from 1.0×106 ± 0.02 - 8.57×106 ± 0.12cfu/ml, 0.00 ×106± 0.00 - 5.82 ×106± 0.04cfu/ml and 0.10×106 ± 0.00 - 4.94×106 ± 0.07cfu/ml respectively. Among the bacterial identified Staphylococcus aureus had the highest (18.21%) while Rhizopus sp. had the highest (3.89%) of all fungal isolates. The parasites identified belonged to eight genera with Ascaris lumbridoides present in all samples with the highest at Eguare, Ogwa. There is need to construct good sewers to allow for discriminate disposal thereby promoting safety of the environment and it’s teeming population. 


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A reciprocally re-enforcing relationship exists between institutions, foreign direct investment and economic growth. Sound institutional framework which supports foreign direct investment is significant for driving rapid Economic growth. An important factor that has undermined rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak institutional structure, decrepit state capacity and low level of foreign direct investment in Nigeria. Democratic structures reflected in the rule of law, effectiveness and predictability of the judiciary and enforceability of contracts proceedings is imperative for accelerating economic growth. Employing the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation techniques on annual time series data covering the period from 1981 to 2015, the relationship between these variables was empirically investigated. The empirical findings reveal that democratic institutions and foreign direct investment are significant variables influencing economic growth in Nigeria. In particular, the results, using Nigerian data, show that weak institutions have a destabilizing impact on growth. The impact of FDI on the other hand is found to be positive and significant. Therefore, sound institutional framework, as well as appropriate and consistent macroeconomic policies that encourage foreign direct investment to propel rapid economic growth in Nigeria needs to be put in place.


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The greatest challenge facing the pharmacological use of phytochemicals is the fact that they are subject to modifications by the several processes they may be exposed to. Thus, pharmacological activities of the new compounds become a matter of scientific interest. Scientists are further faced with the challenge of not knowing the direction of research since the activity of some modified products can differ greatly from the primary compounds. In this study, in silico approach was used to determine the pharmacological and biochemical activity of ascorbic acid and its oxidation products. The probable activity (Pa) was set at equal to or greater than (≥) 0.900 and probable inactivity (Pi) was set at equal to or less than (≤) 0.03. The oxidation products of ascorbic acid were observed to have lesser antioxidant activity. Other possible pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic and respiratory analeptic were revealed. This approach could guide research on new compounds and their processing induced modified products that will greatly enhance drug discovery and formulation of functional foods.


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