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Recently, scientists at the University of California discovered 109 compounds through suspect screening of about 3500 industrial chemicals on pilot data from 30 paired maternal and cord serum samples. According to the researchers, fifty five of these compounds have not been reported in any literature and there is paucity of information about their sources or use. Considering the number of chemical agents humans are exposed to today, this is an expected event.


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Essential oils contain bioactive compounds and studies indicate diverse applications in food storage as antioxidants. Due to varying quantitative composition, it is important to identify the active ingredients and assess their individual antioxidant capacities while also considering their pharmacokinetic properties. Bioinformatics play essential role in the prediction of bioactivity as well as the toxicity of novel compounds. In this study, the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Monodora myristica was predicted in silico using PASS. Systemic ADMET evaluation in the categories: physiochemical property, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, of the two top-scoring compounds were analyzed using the ADMETlab free web interface. These compounds were studied alongside standard synthetic and natural antioxidants to obtain pharmacokinetic data. The parameter ‘reductant’ was observed as high scoring probable activity among the standard antioxidant compounds. E-beta-ocimene and carvacrol scored the highest probable activity among the compounds studied. Pharmcokinetic properties of the two compounds were mostly optimal. The outcome of this in silico study provides fore knowledge to the ADMET profile of the compounds and will be useful in planning research to study their application in oxidation-induced food spoilage during cold preservation.


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Naturally occurring attenuation process for restoration of crude oil impacted soil is dependent on the crude oil transformation capabilities of indigenous microorganisms that are ubiquitous in the soil. This potential of the microbes can be explored in the design of a remediation strategy to manage crude oil pollution in the soil.
In this study, microbes including bacteria and fungi were isolated from an aged crude oil polluted soil and characterized using morphological and biochemical methods. The potential of the microbial isolates to utilize and degrade crude oil was evaluated in liquid medium using turbidity assay and estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH).
Microbial screening revealed the presence of microbial genera including bacteria and fungi in the aged crude oil polluted soil with ability to utilize and degrade crude oil in liquid medium. The probable identity of the indigenous microorganisms ranked in their increasing capacity to utilize and degrade crude oil was: Enterobacter ˂ E. coli ˂ Micrococcus ˂ Aeromonas ˂ Corynebacterium ˂ Bacillus ˂ Pseudomonas (bacteria) and Fusarium ˂ Penicillium ˂ Aspergillus (Fungi).
These microbial isolates especially Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium with high oleophilic abilities are effective candidates that can be used as microbial consortium in bioremediation plan for the restoration of the crude oil impacted soil.


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Essential oils are gaining attention as natural substitutes for synthetic antioxidant compounds due to uncertainties about their toxicity. In this study, lean meat (liver and kidney tissues) from beef, were freeze preserved after treatment with Aframomum angustifolium seed essential oil and butylated hydroxytoluene dissolved in soya bean oil. Three sample groups were used for the study; essential oil treated group (test), butylated hydroxytoluene treated group (positive control) and soya bean oil group (normal control). At an interval of three days, malondialdehyde concentration was measured by spectrophotometry in the three groups for twenty-four days to ascertain the level of lipid peroxidation. The result of the study indicated a steady increase in malondialdehyde concentration in normal control and test groups of kidney tissue from day 3-15. The concentration peaked at 3.136 ng/g and 3.046 ng/g respectively. Positive control group peaked on day 9 at 3.115 ng/g. A decline was observed in all kidney tissue groups in the remaining days of the experiment. A similar trend was observed in the liver tissue. The essential oil demonstrated antioxidant capacity significantly higher (p<0.05) than butylated hydroxytoluene from day 3-9. Malondialdehyde concentration in the test and positive control groups peaked at 3.061 ng/g and 3.102 ng/g respectively on day 12. Normal control group peaked earlier at 3.37 ng/g on day 9. The results of this study indicate that Aframomum angustifolium seed essential oil has capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation in freeze-stored lean meat.


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The continued use of potassium bromate in some food and cosmetic products in Nigeria against regulatory provision
has continually exposed Nigerians to its deleterious effect. The mechanism of bromate induced damage in the liver
and kidney is through oxidative stress. Phytochemicals have antioxidant capacity and have gained research interest in
the management of oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of the ethanol extract of Aframomum angustifolium seed
on kidney and liver damage induced by exposure to an acute dose of potassium bromate was measured using
appropriate biomarkers. Eighteen male Wistar rats, randomly divided into 3 groups were used for the study. Group I
(normal control) received distilled H2O; Group II (positive control) received 400 mg/kgbw bromate once while Group III
(test) received same acute dose as Group II but thereafter treated with an oral dose of ethanol extract (750 mg/kgbw)
for 10days. Half the populations of each group were sacrificed on day 3 while the remaining was sacrificed on day 10
of treatment. Liver and kidney tissues as well as blood samples were collected for analysis. Biochemical parameters;
malondialdehyde, creatinine, electrolytes (Na+ and K+) concentration as well as catalase, alanine aminotransferase
and alkaline phosphatase activities were measured using standard spectrophotometric procedures. In the kidney
tissue, malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in all groups from day 3 to day 10 but was highest in
Group II. A similar trend was observed in the liver tissue but only group III increased significantly. Catalase activity
was inhibited in Group II in both kidney and liver tissues and was significantly lower than test group. Serum Na+
decreased and K+ increased respectively but Group III were comparable to the Group I. Creatinine concentration
increased in all groups but was highest in Group II though it was not significant. ALP activity was significantly higher
(p<0.05) in Group III on day 3 compared to Group I but was not significantly different (p>0.05) on day 10. The results
of this study suggests that ethanol extract of Aframomum angustifolium seeds can accelerate the in vivo repair of
bromate induced hepato- and reno- toxicity in Wistar rats.


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This study evaluated the ability of ethanol extract of Aframomum angustifolium seeds to ameliorate the nephrotoxic effect of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in rats. Biochemical alterations following co-administration of extract with 30 mg/kgbw KBrO3 were monitored in four animal groups (3 rats/group). Oral administration lasted for 28 days. Biomarkers were monitored using standard spectrophotometric methods. Kidney SOD and CAT activities, as well as serum HCO3- and creatinine levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treated groups than in the positive control group. Photomicrographs of kidney tissue support the biochemical observations. These findings suggest that the extract mitigated bromate-induced kidney lesions in the treated rats.


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The greatest challenge facing the pharmacological use of phytochemicals is the fact that they are subject to modifications by the several processes they may be exposed to. Thus, pharmacological activities of the new compounds become a matter of scientific interest. Scientists are further faced with the challenge of not knowing the direction of research since the activity of some modified products can differ greatly from the primary compounds. In this study, in silico approach was used to determine the pharmacological and biochemical activity of ascorbic acid and its oxidation products. The probable activity (Pa) was set at equal to or greater than (≥) 0.900 and probable inactivity (Pi) was set at equal to or less than (≤) 0.03. The oxidation products of ascorbic acid were observed to have lesser antioxidant activity. Other possible pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic and respiratory analeptic were revealed. This approach could guide research on new compounds and their processing induced modified products that will greatly enhance drug discovery and formulation of functional foods.


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Spices are rich in phytochemicals which are responsible for their observed antioxidant property. This potential can be affected by heat treatment when spices are used as food additives. This research studied the effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant capacity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aframomum angustifolium seeds. The antioxidant capacity was measured in vitro by evaluating the metal chelating activity (MCA), ferric reducing ability (FRA), hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) before and after heat treatment. The percentage metal chelating activity of the extracts
before heating were comparable (p > 0.05) to that of ascorbic acid while the percentage metal chelating activity of the ethanol extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 65.99% to 47.62% after heat treatment for 30 min. The percentage hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the aqueous extract was unaffected (p > 0.05) by heat treatment whereas the activity in ethanol extract decreased. The ferric reducing ability of the extracts decreased significantly after heat treatment while the NO scavenging activity increased with heat treatment. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the extracts measured as ascorbic acid equivalents reduced but were not
significantly affected by heat treatment. The results of this study suggest that the antioxidant potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. angustifolium seeds is not totally lost by heat treatment.


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This study investigated the effect of air and sun drying methods on the antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. leaves. The total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and ferric reducing power were evaluated using standard spectrophotometric methods against different concentrations (30 to 120µg/ml) of the plant extract and ascorbic acid as reference standard. There was no significant difference in the total antioxidant capacity estimated as ascorbic acid equivalent between the air and sun-dried extracts. A concentration dependent increase in antioxidant capacity was observed in the other assays. The air – dried extract had the highest percentage activity except in the metal chelating and ferric reducing power assays. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the air-dried extract (86.21±1.19%) was significantly higher than ascorbic acid (85.69±0.90%) and the sundried extract (77.14±1.19%) at 120µg/ml. The result of this study suggests a better potential for air drying of basil leaves for use as spices, food additive and in traditional medicine.


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In recent times, research done on Carica papaya seeds has shown its nutritive and medicinal benefits without resort to possible side effect. However, studies have shown that the consumption of C. papaya seeds causes vascular contraction, infertility in female rats, reduced sperm counts, sperm cell degeneration and abortifacient properties. This study was designed to determine the enzyme assay level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum of wistar rats fed with modified diet of C. papaya milled seeds to ascertain possible hepatic or myocardia defect. A total of 15 wistar rats were divided into two groups comprising of test (8) and control (7) respectively. The test group were fed with modified diet of edible black C. papaya seeds and the control group with grower’s marsh feed for a period of 9 weeks. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase activity showed the Mean ± SEM of aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum of the test group as 0.38±0.03 and the control group 0.19±0.10 respectively. Subsequently, alanine aminotransferase activity from the obtained test and control groups showed the Mean ± SEM of alanine aminotransferase activity in the serum as 0.86±0.02 and 1.25±0.03 respectively. Furthermore, there is a significant (P<0.05) difference between the control and test group based on the level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activity in the serum. In summary, transaminases are usually used in the diagnosis of liver damage and myocardia infarction. Therefore, the increase level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in the serum of Wistar Strain albino rats may suggest possible damage of hepatocyte cardiac muscles associated with the consumption of diet modified fed with C. papaya seeds.


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The nephrotoxic effects of Strophantus hispidus stem bark (aqueous and ethanol) in normal rats were assessed. Male rats (Wistar strain) numbering 45 were randomly selected into nine groups of five rats each. Four groups were given 100, 200, 500 and 800 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract, while another four groups received similar doses of ethanol extract. One group served as untreated normal control. After 28 days of daily administration of the extracts and water, animals were sacrificed. Urea, creatinine and some electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- & HCO3-) were assessed. Both extracts produced significant increases (p<0.05) in urea concentration at 800 mg/kg when compared with the control group. At the same dose, significant increase (p<0.05) were observed in creatinine concentration for the aqueous and ethanol extracts treated groups while the ethanol extract treated groups at 500 mg/kg body weight also showed significant increases (p<0.05) in creatinine. Similarly, K+ significantly increased at 800 mg/kg body weight for both extracts while Na+ produced a significant increase at the same dose for the aqueous extract treated groups. However, a significant increase in Na+ was observed in the ethanol treated groups at the doses of 500 and 800 mg/kg. Interestingly, no significant effects (p>0.05) were observed in the levels of Cl- and HCO3- at all the doses of aqueous extract administered. The ethanol extract treated groups however showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in Cl- content and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HCO3- content at the highest dose administered when compared with the control. The findings from this study suggest that higher doses of S. hispidus are inimical to kidney function. It also indicates that the extract may be deleterious to the nephrons than aqueous extract.


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Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) Afzel (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicinal practice for the treatment of hypertension. This research is devoted to phytochemical constituents, in particular, some specific alkaloids present in the RV root extract. The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids in this extract. The antioxidant activity of the RV root extract was also evaluated in a series of in vitro assays involving free radicals. The extract exhibited significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect relative to ascorbic acid (p < 0.05, IC50= 98 μg/ml), nitric oxide scavenging effect (50.37 ± 0.4% after 150 min), and metal chelating activity (89.08 ±2.62%). In addition, it exhibited significant ferric reducing power relative to ascorbic acid (p < 0.05). The total content of phenolic substances was 233.3 ± 2.9 mg/g. The extract was also studied for its inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation as a possible mechanism of its aphrodisiac effect, by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in various male-cow tissues incubated in a 5% solution of the RV root extract, distilled water, and antioxidant vitamins C and E upon keeping the samples frozen for 35 days. Tissues incubated in the test solution had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to those in the samples incubated in distilled water. Results obtained from this study indicate that the RV root extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidants.


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