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Relationship marketing differs from other forms of marketing in that it recognizes the long term value of customer relationships and extends communication beyond intrusive advertising and sales promotional messages. Relationship marketing and traditional (or transactional) marketing are not mutually exclusive and there is no need for a conflict between them. A relationship oriented marketer still has choices at the level of practice, according to the situation variables. Most firms blend the two approaches to match their portfolio of products and services. This study long-term customer relationship building and maintenance in the Seed industry, Primary data was used for this study which was generated through structured closed ended questionnaires. Chi-square was employed to test the research hypothesis. The result reveal that relationship building is significant to customer satisfaction and retention. 

 


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The paper examined the impact of Strategic Management on the performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) via competitive advantage, sales and profit.  This was with the view of assessing the impact of Strategic Management on sustainable growth in Nigerian SMEs. A descriptive survey research design was employed for the paper using structured questionnaire and oral interview for data collection. The questionnaire was administered on thirty SMEs owners in four states of Southwest Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Osun and Oyo State. Thus, a total of 120 respondents were purposively sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed using frequency tables, simple percentages and chi-square test. The results showed that Strategic Management practices significantly assist SMEs to gain competitive advantage ( The results further showed that Strategic Management significantly increased their sales ( and improved their profits levels. The paper concluded that, Strategic Management has contributed immensely to the sustainable growth of Small and Medium scale Enterprises in South-West Nigeria and recommended that Strategic Management practice should be adopted by all small and medium business firms in Nigeria.


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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been known as vital technologies that are associated with production mechanisms for technological progress. The study examined the impact of ICT on project planning activities in Nigerian food and beverage industry. Data from primary sources were obtained through the use of questionnaire and interview scheduled on one hundred and seventy five (175) purposively selected users of ICT across three Departments of food and beverage firms in Nigeria. This was with a view to elicit information on the level of outputs and significance of the application of ICT to the performance of the industry. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis of variance shows that there were significant difference in the mean rank of respondents’ opinion on ICT to improve quality (F=110.07, P = 0.05), reduce cost (F=110.07, p<0.05), improves process (F=140.93, p<0.05), and reduce processing time (F=184.36, p<0.05). Evidence shows that Internet usage, Virtual Private Network (VPN), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) had strong impact on product quality, process improvement, cost and time reduction. It was concluded that the absence of ICT in the firm will slow down the effective coordination of raw materials.


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The focus of this paper is on the identification of determinants of organizational commitment

and employee job satisfaction. It is viewed as one of the basic concepts describing the relationship between an employee and an organization. In this paper determinant of organizational commitment, factors conditioning development of three organizational commitment components and various variables responsible for employee satisfaction is been discussed. These variables are: Organization development factors, Job security factors, Work task factors, Policies of compensation and benefit factor and opportunities in the organization. Other factors discussed which give satisfaction to employees’ in cl ud e: promotion and career development, equitable rewards and supportive colleagues; also discussed are the various ways by which one can improve employee satisfaction. The main objective of this study is to discuss the above mentioned variables and examine the major determinants of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction and highlight the factors that can enhance employee’s job satisfaction. This paper adopts the exploratory and content methods analysis of various relevant literatures to review the concepts of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction. The paper recommends that Organizational managers should try their best to evaluate why employees leave or what kindles their dissatisfaction.


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The focus of this paper is on Human Resources accounting which has not been properly integrated into the financial statement of various organizations and being regarded as assets. The main purpose of this study is to examine the issues involved in valuing human resource /people working in organizations, which has been regarded as the most valuable assets in business organizations, the benefits of attaching values and the challenges and obstacles of implementing the Human Resource accounting disclosures of such values in the firm’s statement of financial position. In the pursuit of the focus of this study, the paper adopts exploratory and content analysis methods of secondary data. The paper reveals that the exponent of human resources valuation models in most cases has not dealt with the mode of recording and disclosure of the accounting information relating to human resources in the books of account or financial statements of the organization. In most cases, the human resource accounting information is given in the form of supplementary information attached to the financial statements. This is of great concern to accounting professionals and practitioners. The paper concludes that considerable research done is due to the increasing importance of human capital in the economy to develop the concepts and methods of valuing human resource that has been recognized as human resources accounting (HRA), and that there is a great need for evolving a system of accounting for human resource that is acceptable to professional accountants, managers and other decision makers – investors, creditors and other stakeholders.

 


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Rice milling enterprise is critical to agricbusiness and is one of the most food processing business that can serve as a means for conserving foreign exchange in Nigeria. The study assessed the agribusiness environment of the small scale rice-milling industry and examined the technology capacity of the paddy farmers. Twenty-Five (25) questionnaires were administered on selected paddy farmers, and rice millers to make a total of fifty (50). The result showed that men played dominant roles in paddy rice farming in the study area.  About 90% of the rice farmers had put in at least ten years and above.  About 26% of respondents were illiterates and 36.6% of farmers practiced mixed farming.  Most (76.4%) of them used their own seed.  About 47% of farmers employed “from the top” while the remaining 53% used “from the bottom” for harvesting.  Many of the farmers employed different parboiling and drying methods which led to variation in the quality of the milled rice.  The implication of these findings as they relate to increase rice production and the economic well-being of the stakeholders is discussed.

 


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This study examines the patterns and impacts of rice production and technological efficiency on economic growth in some selected countries. Data used for the study covered the period 1990-2015 and were all obtained from Word Bank Development Index online.  Descriptive and panel data techniques were employed in the analysis. The Panel regression results reveals that the F-statistics value for the fixed effect model exceeds (65.20) that of the Pooled OLS (58.1) at 1% level of significance, necessitating the adoption of the fixed effect model, with an adjusted R2 value of 0.86. The empirical findings reveal that the countries exhibit differential rates of technology, necessitating some of the countries having technological efficiency values higher than the mean value of the entire sampled countries. The results further show that rice production index and technological efficiency are positive and significant to stimulating economic growth in the sampled countries. Hence, domestic production of rice induces positive spill-overs on income, employment and poverty reduction.   We recommend rice production enhancement policies as well is increased technological know-how should be encouraged in order to enhance economic growth in these countries


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Governance has become so vast and complex that the government of the people, for the people and by the people has become the government of the people, by the government and for the people. The logic behind the idea of government supports the development of political and administrative structures that offer the potentials for political stability and national development. The public servant in this regard plays a significant role in the successful achievement of good governance. This study is expected to explain the relationship between politicians, public servants and good governance while it further revealed the efficiency of the application of the law in force, the efficacy of the decisions made by the government, and the political responsibility and accountability of elected officials in relation to the demand expressed by civil society. The study is qualitative in nature, as it based its theoretical framework on structural functionalism. It submits that there is the need for full respect for citizen’s rights as the public service is a major change agent in Nigeria’s quest for enhanced progress, hence the on-going reformation of the Nigerian public service is in line to achieve the purpose of good governance and deal with the challenges therein.


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This study identified, categorized project scope management practices employed by telecommunication organization in the implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) projects. The study examined the factors influencing the choice of scope management practices on ICT projects implementation among telecommunication organizations in Nigeria. The study was carried out with the use of primary data source which were obtained through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule to a total of one hundred and twenty five (125) project sponsors, one hundred and twenty five (125) project managers/coordinators and one hundred and twenty five project team members on ICT projects implemented by telecommunication organizations in Nigeria. This was used to elicit information on the factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices among telecommunication organizations in implementing ICT projects. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed the major adopted factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices among telecommunication organizations in implementing ICT projects were Competitive Advantage, Organizational Process Assets, Expert Judgment, Complex Activity List, Complex Project Scope Statement, Limited Resources, Fast Tracking, Project Delays, Client Demand, Technical Skills Required, Dynamism of Technology and Return on Investment. All of these factors had a mean rank of 3.50 and above on a 5 point-likert scale. Four of these factors were identified to be major factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices employed by telecommunication organizations implementing ICT projects. These include Competitive Advantage (58.5%), Complex Project Scope Statement (85.8%), Client’s Demand (60.9%) and Return on Investment (52.5%). Correlation analysis revealed that Organizational process assets (r = .448**: p<0.05), Expert Judgment (r = .261**: p<0.05), Complex project scope statement (r = .260**: p<0.05), Limited resources (r = -.425**: p<0.05), Client’s demand (r = .533**: p<0.05), and Returns on investment (r = .309**: p<0.05) were shown to have a significant relationship with the choice of project scope management practices employed by the organizations. In conclusion, the study revealed that Organizational process assets, Expert judgment, Complex project scope statement, Limited resources, client’s demand and Return on Investment are factors that significantly influence the choice of project scope management practices in the telecommunication organizations.


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The focus of this study is to assess the democratic system and factor analysis of environment of business organizations in Nigeria. This paper examined the practice, problems and prospects of Nigerian democratic system and the relationship between democracy and environment of business organizations in Nigeria. This paper discusses the process of environmental analysis using the concept of strength, weakness, opportunities and threat (SWOT) model approaches. The methodology utilized for this study is the descriptive and content investigation with qualitative reporting. The study largely employs secondary data sourced from textbooks, journal publication, newspapers articles, internet materials and academic papers. The research reveals that Nigerian democratic system has not achieved much success in bestowing to the people their fundamental desires or even the requirement to participate in the management of the affairs of the country. This study contends that despite, the hope of a politically steady and democratically feasible country, obviously the citizens’ eagerness to take part in the electoral practice and the general awareness in the country that the only acceptable and popular route to the attainment of political power is to vote. The paper recommends that further research is done on the subject using appropriate statistical and econometric tools for the analysis of linkage between democracy and the tangential features of the environment of industrial organizations.


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This study identified the nature of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) adopted on project planning activities and examined the factors affecting the adoption of these ICT on project planning in the Food and Beverage Industry in Nigeria. The study was carried out through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule to a total of forty five (45) respondents across ICT, Production and Project departments of food and beverage firms in southwestern Nigeria. This was used to elicit information on the factors affecting the adoption of ICT in the industry. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the major ICT adopted by food and beverage firms in Nigeria were Enterprise resource planning (4.48), Product lifecycle management (4.29), Customer Relationship Management (4.19), Supply Chain Management (4.34), Management Information Systems (4.38), Portable Data Collection Hand Held (4.65), Virtual Private Networks (4.53), Internet and e-mail (4.77). All of these ICTs had a mean rank of 4.00 and above on a 5 point-likert scales.Three factors were identified to influence ICT adoption. These include Human Resource capacity (52.8%), level of ICT investment (47.2%) and ICT competency (69.4%). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that level of ICT on Investment (r = -.425**: p<0.05) and Employee Competency (r = -.634**: p<0.05) are factors which had significant influence on ICT adoption in the project planning activities of the firms. In conclusion, the study revealed that Level of ICT investment and employee ICT competency are factors that significantly influence the adoption of ICT in the selected firms. These factors were found to be critical hindrances to ICT adoption in Nigerian food and beverage industry.


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Women entrepreneurs have become a topical issue due to their influence in global economies and business today, their impact has been felt in most developing countries including Nigeria. Despite these contributions women entrepreneurs still suffer a lot of set back and constraints in exploiting their potentials unlike their male counterparts. There are wide ranges of factors limiting the progress of women entrepreneurs. The objective of this study is to examine the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs that inhibit full utilization of their creativity in Igueben Local government of Edo State, Nigeria. Primary data was used for this study which was generated through structured questionnaires and direct interview from entrepreneurs within Igueben Local Government. ANOVA was employed to test the research hypothesis. Recommendations were made on how to strengthen women entrepreneurs in the Local government and Nigeria at large.


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The focus of this paper is on managerial approach to conflict management in an organization.
The objectives of this study is to ascertain what constitute conflict, sources of conflict, views
of conflict, consequences of conflict in an organization and the strategies for dealing with
organizational conflict etc. To effectively examine how conflict management will improve
organizational performance, the study relies mainly on secondary data from textbook,
internet, journals etc. The study reveals that conflict is endemic in human life’s and cannot not
totally be eradicated rather its effect can be minimized so as to ensure that it does not hinder
the activities of the organization by way of reducing performance. The paper recommends
amongst others that managers at all levels should acquaint themselves with potential causes of
conflict in their organization and address them early enough to forestall activities that will
hamper the smooth running of the organization.


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This study examined the factors influencing transition from organizational employment to self-employment among high school teachers in Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents who were randomly selected. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists was used to analyze the data. The study revealed the significance of parent’s involvement in business and entrepreneurial training in the development of entrepreneurial intention among respondents. Data analyses revealed associations between father’s involvement in business and the propensity of offspring to engage in self-employment. The study concluded that the influence that parents’ involvement in business will have on offspring’s entrepreneurial intention should be a motivating factor to policy makers to formulate policies that will provide enabling environment for such businesses. Also, entrepreneurial training should be intensified for the youths to foster the development of entrepreneurship in the country.  


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Health and safety management is about commitment to and providing conducive
working environment to employees. Human resources department plays a
prominent role in ensuring employee’s health and safety as they discharge their
duties in the workplace. This study examines the importance of health and safety
in workplace, safety and health hazard, stress and its causes, consequences of
stress at workplace, strategies for making the workplace safer, risk assessment,
managing health and safety among others. The objective of this study is to ascertain
the essence of health and safety in the work environment. It is a truism that a
healthy man is a wealthy man and for an organisation to achieve its goals its
workforce must be fit physically and mentally to carry out their tasks. The study
observes that the health of the workforce is an immense valuable asset to the
organization and should not only be preserved but should be fostered. The
findings of this research reveal that for organisations to be productive and
profitable, adequate attention must be given to the wellbeing of the work force.
Hence, it is recommended among many others that management should carryout
periodic written safety inspections of the workplace, including follow-up entries
explaining what was done to mitigate all deficiencies.


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The focus of this paper is on the impact of HRM practices on private sector organisations performance in Nigeria. Guinness Nigeria Plc is a private sector driving entity. Its human resource practices can be crucial to its performance. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess whether Guinness’s human resource management practices, particularly recruitment and selection, Staff performance appraisal, compensation, and training and development practices influence its performance. Simple random sampling was used to select eighty employees from Guinness Nig. Plc. T-tests were carried out to examine the relationship between the selected Human Resources practices and organization performance. The results revealed that, from the perceptions of the respondents, there exists a positive relationship between effective recruitment and selection practices, effective performance appraisal practices and Guinness’s performance. The research did not gather sufficient evidence to conclude on how compensation, training and development practices influence organization’s performance. The study recommends that the management of Guinness Nig. Plc continues to ensure that the company’s Human Resources policy, effective recruitment and selection practices, as well as effective performance appraisal practices are upheld.


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The  focus  of  this  paper  is  on  entrepreneurial  development  and  analysis  of  Interventionist Agencies in Nigeria. It examines the critical stages or sphere of development required of the entrepreneur in order to enable him perform his strategic functions in the organization and in the context of organizational strategic management in Nigeria. In pursuit of the focus of this paper, it treats numerous issues (an overview inclusive). It also examines the entrepreneurial roles and factors affecting its strategic management importance. Furthermore it x-rays in detail the three- skill approach to entrepreneurial development. These include technical, human and conceptual skills. It analyzes some government interventionist institutions and agencies established to encourage entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The paper posits that though there is a widespread knowledge of the efficacy of entrepreneurial development mix, integrated entrepreneurial development efforts indicates that several of the institutions established by government concentrated on a partial approach to entrepreneurial development programme. Finally, it concludes and recommends four priorities agenda to enhance the entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.


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This paper focused on the challenges and prospects of private sector organizations as the main engines of economic growth and development in Nigeria. It discussed the concepts of organization, the prospects and challenges of private sector-led growth in Nigeria. The study examined the current business environment and discussed ways of encouraging the private sector organizations in Nigeria to act as a catalyst for economic growth and development. The paper posits that to achieve a desired sustainable private sector-led the growth of the economy, it is imperative for the government to continuously put in place policies and programs that will encourage private sector participation and contribution to the development process. Finally, it concluded that there is growth in the financial performance of private sector organizations and its sustained prospects and success hinged on all those series of initiatives and policies of the government to advances private sector-led growth and transform the country into an economy that is robust, stable, dynamic, export-led and competitive


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