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This study assessed the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia peruviana for amino acid contents, fatty acids composition and Phytochemical properties. The parameters of interest were determined using standard methods.The study revealed the main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in raw and boiled thevetia peruviana seed. The unsaturated fatty acids are palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3) and erucic acid (C22:1). Oleic acid is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid followed by linoleic acid with values as follows, (54.75 % and 21.48 %) while for boiled (52.45 % and 18.95 %) respectively in each case. Myristic acid, Pamlitic acid, Stearic acid and Behenic acid are the saturated fatty acid. Also, the value of oleic acid (C18:1) reduced (52.45 %) due to the effect of boiling, while the saturated fatty of pamlitic acid (C16:0) increased (19.06 %) due to the effect of boiling. The study further revealed that all the essential amino acids required in human and animal diet were present in both raw and boiled seed of Thevetia peruviana. Glutamate acid has the most abundant in both raw and boiled sample (18.45 %) and (19.99 %) respectively while the lowest of all in raw is Cysteine (1.18 %) and in the boiled Histidine (1.25 %) which is as a result of boiling.The Phytochemical screening on the oil revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The boiling has little reduction on the characteristics of boiled thevetia peruviana seed.


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Water samples were collected for analysis from dug reservoirs in different residential areas of Ogwa communities in Edo state, Nigeria. Physico-chemical properties of these water samples were determined using standard analytical procedures. Samples were collected from five  different sites and analyzed for following parameters such as color, odor, taste, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness and concentration of principal cations and anions such as Na+, K+,Mn2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, phosphate PO42- and nitrate NO3-. The results of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range pH (5.71- 6.14), temperature (31.1-31.9˚c), turbidity (0.12-0.37mg/l), conductivity (24.92-113.03µS/cm), odor (odorless), chloride (0.00 -41.34 mg/l), total dissolved solids (13.06- 40.45mg/l), total suspended solids (0.00-0.59mg/l), total hardness (2.6-7.8mg/l), Colour (1-2ptCO), Sulphate (12.5-194mg/l), Phosphate (0.004- 0.007mg/l) and Nitrate (0.23-2.15mg/l) .The concentrations of the metals can also be expressed in the following range; Na+ (2-20 mg/l), K+ (1-3 mg/l), Mn2+(2.5-9.34 mg/l), Fe2+(0.32-1.48mg/l). The data showed that there is variation in the investigated parameters and the highest value of physico-chemical parameters were obtained in Iyekeki. The concentrations of the investigated parameters of water samples conform to the permissible limits set by World Health Organization except that the pH values of the water samples were below the standards set by WHO/Nigeria standard of drinking water and the concentrations of manganese in the water samples exceed the standard set by World Health Organization. 


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Cellulose modifications through grafting of active monomers have been found to enhance the sorption properties of cellulosic agricultural waste materials in the uptake of materials from solutions and in water treatment. Initial compositional analysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a fibrous matter left after cane sugar extraction from sugarcane, showed a cellulose content of 40.21 %; hemicellulose, 25.8 %; lignin, 22.9 %; ash content, 1.72 % and moisture content of 9.41 %. The cellulose was extracted from the SCB using alkaline extraction with sodium hydroxide followed by bleaching with sodium hypochlorite. It gave a cellulose yield of 53.13 %. Acrylamide monomer was grafted unto the cellulose under optimum conditions of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) concentration of 0.015 M, 2 hours reaction time and a monomer to cellulose ratio of 3:1 (w/v). These conditions favoured increase in graft and graft efficiency percent. 


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The study investigated the anti-microbial activities of the leaves of Senna occidentalis in the treatment of some bacteria diseases. 385.50g of Senna occidentalis leaves was plucked in an open field of Zebe, Ajara Agamathan in Badagry, Lagos State and was subjected to hydro-distillation by the use of Clevenger apparatus for 4hours. The volatile oil obtained was bottled and weighed with a percentage yield of 0.078%. The oil from the leaves were cultured (with some antibiotics used as control) Amoxillin, Cotrimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin, Nalidixicin, Ofloxacin, Agumetin, Colistin on each nutrient agar (ASA) plates at 37 0C for 24 hours and were tested against some organisms such as: (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Sp., Bacillus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., Klebsilia Sp). The study revealed that the essential oil extracted did not inhibit activity against all the organisms. This indicates that oil extracted from Senna occidentalis leaves cannot be used to control the microbes at the (0.2ml) concentraion used. Further investigation showed that two (Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin) of the entire antibiotics used as control inhibited the growth of the microbes. Thus, an infection caused by senna occidentalis can be cured by Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin antibiotics.


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This study examined the powdered sample of the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia Peruviana, the seeds were analysed for proximate composition, mineral content, while the oil extracted from the seeds were evaluated for physicochemical properties using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the proximate composition (%) of the raw and boiled samples respectively are moisture (2.00 and 2.89), ash (3.33 and 2.96), crude protein (30.10 and 29.6), crude fibre (4.79 and 5.21), crude fat ( 58.3 and 59.20), carbohydrate ( 1.80 and 0.30), and energy (2524.5 and 2521.1) KJ/g. While the physiochemical properties of the extracted oil are acid value (1.71 and 1.41) mg/g, peroxide value (3.85 and 11.51) mg/g, iodine value (83.89 and 76.20) mgKOH/g, saponification value (224.26 and 193.78)mg/g, unsaponification value (2.04 and 1.59)mg/g, density (0.89 and 0.88) g/dm3, specific gravity (0.91 and 0.93), refractive index at 320C (1.46 and 1.47) and viscosity (28.21 and 30.59) pal/sec. The mineral contents of both raw and boiled samples are in the order of P > K > Na > mg > Fe > Ca > Zn > Mn. Cd, Pb, Ca and Cr were detected in raw and boiled samples except Ca that was detected in raw sample. Generally, the high protein and fat contents show that the samples can be used in food and feed formulation while the saponification values, iodine values and the presence of some valuable minerals indicate that they can be used for other industrial purpose.


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Agricultural wastes such as sugarcane bagasses, maize cob, palm kernel cake, palm oil empty fruit bunches, banana pseudo stem and orange mesocarp have been known to be potential sources of cellulose. From these cellulose sources sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), a water soluble cellulose derivative and an essential raw material in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and detergent industries could be synthesized. Importantly, orange mesocarp generated from orange peel is an abundant agricultural by-product which consists of about 62.5% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative secondary resources for cellulose. In this work, cellulose was extracted from orange mesocarp and then converted to NaCMC. The orange mesocarp was dried and ground to pass 20 mesh screen. Cellulose was extracted using 8% NaOH at 100PoPC for 3.5 hrs and bleached using 3.85% NaOCl at 30PoPC for 3 hrs. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was consequently synthesized from the extracted cellulose by alkalization followed by etherification. The physicochemical properties of the NaCMC were determined in terms of the degree of substitution, viscosity and with the use of FTIR spectroscopy. The NaCMC resulted from this work has a viscosity of 14.0cP at 29.8oC and DS 1.02 and therefore was categorized as technical grade with medium viscosity. After optimization and scaling up of the production process the NaCMC synthesized will be a useful and cheap raw material for the industries.


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A kinetic evaluation of the fermentation of soursop (Substrate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast enzyme) was conducted by determining the effect of various parameters (such as Temperature, substrate, pH, and Yeast concentration) on the rate of production of CO2. The results showed that the rate of fermentation increased in proportion with Temperature (optimum 32-36oC), Substrate (optimum 50%v/v), pH (optimum 5.0) and Yeast concentration (optimum 3.5-4.5%w/v) up to a point and decreased. The kinetic parameters evaluated are maximum rate of reaction Vmax (1.79x102MS-1); catalytic constant, k2 (8.0x10-2 dm3 mol-1S-1); overall rate constant, k (1.79x102); order of initial reaction (first order); dissociation constant of enzyme-substrate complex, ks (1.64x102); Michaelis constant, km (1.64x102M); and the specific activity of enzyme on substrate concentration (1x10-1%w/v).


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The rate of cane sugar fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied at temperatures between 30˚C
and 42˚C in order to characterize the process using thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH*), activation
energy (ΔE*), entropy (ΔS*), Gibbs free energy (ΔG*) and equilibrium constant (K). The parameters were
evaluated on the basis of a consideration of Arrhenius, Eyring and Van’t Hoff’s equations. The results obtained
are ΔH*, 91.85 KJ∙mol−1; ΔE*, 91.85 KJ∙mol−1, ΔS*, 2763 J∙mol−1K−1; ΔG*, -762.09 KJ∙mol−1, and equilibrium
constant, K, 1.34 dm3∙mol−1. These values were subsequently used to obtain by calculation the rate constant of
the fermentation k, 1.43 × 1011 min−1, Arrhenius constant A (pre-exponential or frequency factor), 4.79 × 1026
min−1, orientation parameter, P, 4.48 × 1015 and the collision frequency Z, 1.07 × 1011 min−1. Finally the fermentation
efficiency calculated on the basis of a complete combustion of glucose is 377.8%. The results showed that
though the fermentation process is kinetically controlled, it is suggested that the positive impact of the feasible
thermodynamics is limited by other process variables.



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The fermentation of cane sugar as substrate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (enzyme) was critically investigated to obtain certain useful kinetic parameters and to determine the effect of temperature, pH, substrate and yeast (enzyme) concentration on the rate of fermentation. The results indicate that the rate of fermentation (measured as rate of production of CO2) increased in proportion with temperature (optimum 32˚C - 36˚C), pH (optimum 5.5) substrate (optimum 50 v/v%) and yeast concentration (optimum 3.5 - 4.5 w/v%) up to a limit and subsisted either as a plateau and/or, decreases as the case may be. This suggests that the reaction takes place in two steps. The kinetic parameters examined are maximum rate of reaction Vmax (2.0 × 102M∙min−1), catalytic constant, k2 (1.81 × 10−1 min−1), overall rate constant, k (1.53 × 101 min−1), order of initial reaction (approx. first order), dissociation constant of enzyme-substrate complex, ks (2.74 × 103), Michaelis constant, km (2.74 × 103 M), and the specific activity of enzyme on substrate concentration (1 × 10−1 w/v%). The result of this study showed that the equilibrium step involving k−1/k1 is the limiting step deciding the direction of reaction as well as the specific activity of the enzyme.


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