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This study examines the influence of Goodluck Jonathan and Muhammadu Buhari’s billboard campaigns on voters’ behavior in Anambra state. The study sought to ascertain if the electorates voting decision were influenced by their exposure to billboard adverts on Jonathan and Buhari, to find out which of the billboards message content the respondents recall more than the other, to determine which of the billboards the respondents prefer; as well as to ascertain the electorates’ level of exposure to the billboard used in the 2015 presidential elections by Jonathan and Buhari and to determine whether there is a significant relationship between exposure to preferred billboard adverts and respondents’ choice of candidate in the election. To achieve this, the study used the survey method with the questionnaire as research instrument. Through multi-stage and purposive sampling, 384 respondents were selected from three senatorial zones in Anambra state and administered the questionnaire. The findings indicated among other things, that voters in Anambra were significantly influenced by their exposure to these billboards and most of them recalled the message contents of Jonathan more than that of Buhari. The study found out that electorates in Anambra state prefer Jonathan’s campaign billboard to that of Buhari and there is no significant relationship between exposure to preferred billboard advert and choice of candidate. In the light of the findings, it was recommended that voters should not rely on billboard advert as it only source of information about contestants. They should explore other sources such as radio, television and social media. The study also recommended that a lot should be done to maximize the potentials of billboard campaign for favourable voting decision.

 

Keywords: Influence, Voter, Billboard, Preference and Political advertising.


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Abstract

The world is now more than ever endangered by the prevalence of medical errors262. Available data suggest that over 2.7 million people die annually around the globe of causes traceable to medical errors. The case appears to be worse in developing countries like Nigeria where confirmed reports revealed that 7 out of every 10 deaths in medical facilities have their roots in medical errors. While it is heart-breaking to come to terms with these ugly statistics, it is even worse to realize that these errors are not communicated to the unsuspecting victims. This is despite the fact that ethical and professional guidelines recommend disclosure of such errors to patients when they occur. Public outcry over these concealment, cover-up, and turning a blind eye to transparency, acknowledgment, and prevention has reached its stretch as it is believed in medicine that some of the errors are even correctable if communicated on time. To this end, the critical questions are; why are these errors not communicated despite the overwhelming trust patients have on their medical officers? What is the Nigerian Medical Association (NMA) doing to ensure that patients who are harmed are informed of what went wrong and why, accompanied by sincere expressions of empathy and regret? The above question, among others, formed the bedrock of this study. 262 This is an umbrella term for all errors including mishandled surgery, diagnostic errors, equipment failures, and medication errors. In conducting this study, the researchers used qualitative research design to generate qualitative data through Key Informant interview and Focus Group Discussions. With this design, the views of direct and indirect victims of medical errors in South-Easterner Nigeria, medical practitioners, Nigerian Medical Association and legal experts were sought. After a thorough analysis, findings revealed that medical errors are prevalent in Nigeria and that they are rarely communicated to the victims or their relations. Again, it was found that patients in Nigeria no longer have confidence in their health officers, and the NMA is yet to speed up efforts to stem the ugly tide of medical errors. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend that health officers should take practical steps to avoid medical errors and in the event of any, it should be communicated after taking into account the psychology of the victim. Again, the NMA should as a matter of urgency look into this worrisome development with a view to stemming the tide. Legal experts and the media should equally learn to challenge vigorously cases of medical errors through legal battles and investigative journalism.

 


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Nomads constitute about 6 per cent of the African population and are found in at least 20 different countries across the continent. In Nigeria, the nomads who constitute about 6.6 per cent (9.3 million) of the country’s population were, before the establishment of National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989, excluded from all formal educational arrangements. The establishment of this Commission saw the introduction of a special educational system to take care of the once educationally deprived nomads in accessing some level of schooling since they could not fit into the conventional school system. Many strategies were consequently developed to this effect. The Radio Distance Learning (RDL) strategy designed in 1996 is one of such strategies which the Commission claimed got better in 2010. But the effectiveness of this seemingly- improved strategy in raising the literacy level of these nomads who are always on transit has been called to question by some dissenting communication scholars and professional tutors. This study, therefore, evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy in growing the knowledge level of these nomads in line with the core mandates of the Commission. In executing this study, the researcher used explanatory mixed design which combined survey and ethnography research methods. Australian National Statistical Service (NSS) Online Calculator was used to draw a manageable sample size from the population of this study which comprised all nomadic RDL students and teachers/facilitators in North-Western Nigeria (1262). The three measuring instruments- questionnaire, interview and observation were used to generate both quantitative and qualitative data. The five research questions and two hypotheses used in the study gave the study a direction. Findings revealed that 77.24 per cent of the nomadic pastoralists in North-Western Nigeria were frequently exposed to the improved radio distance learning programme. It was equally found that the timing of the radio programme, Don Makiyaya a Ruga, was appropriate, but the strategy did not have an effective feedback technique. The study also revealed that the culture of the nomads did not influence their participation in the scheme and as such, the knowledge level of 83.97 per cent of the nomadic RDL students has increased because of their participation in the programme. Based on these findings, it was recommended that more professional hands should be engaged so as to make the scheme more effective, viable and result-oriented, while government at all levels were urged to increase funding to NCNE through grants and subventions.


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The Nigerian civil war of 1967-1970 ended with the then military government of Gen. Gowon maintaining the “No Victor, No Vanquished” posture. This was despite the fact that the defunct Biafra, as it were, clearly lost out with millions of casualties, mostly women and children. This posture, with all its criticisms from those who insisted that Biafrans should be treated as prisoners of war, was maintained by the then Head of State who believed it was a reconciliatory take off point. Ever since, several policies, and programmes have been put in place to reduce the hostility between the then Biafrans (now mainly South- Easterners and a few South-
Southerners) and the rest of the country. At the point when available evidence was suggesting that the hostility was reducing, late Prof. Chinua Achebe published a controversial book, “There was a Country: A Personal History of Biafra,” in 2012. This book, with a detailed account of the war, analysts argue, has reengineered  hostility, “thereby bringing to naught all reconciliatory moves made in the last forty-two years.” Considering Achebe’s intellectual capacity, world status and what he represented, especially to the Igbo nation, one is tempted to agree with these analysts. However, such conclusion could be hasty without empirical proof. Therefore, the obvious questions are: has the book in any way influenced Nigerians to construct or reconstruct their memories of the war? Is it leading to fresh hostility, considering the fact that he accused prominent Nigerians of genocide? Qualitative and quantitative data generated through interview, questionnaire and focus group discussion revealed that the book has influenced Nigerians to construct and reconstruct negative memories of the war.


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This study investigates how selected Nigerian newspapers reported the Chibok school girls’ abduction in Government Secondary School, Chibok Borno State on April 14 2014. The research focuses on how the abduction is framed in the news stories of two Southern and Northern Nigerian based newspapers (The Guardian, The Sun, The Trust and Leadership Newspapers) and how such frames influenced the audience. In conducting this study, two research methods- content analysis and survey methods, were used to generate quantitative data for analysis. Content analytical method was used to study seven news frames as used in the selected dailies while survey was used to establish the influence such frames have on the news audience. After a thorough analysis, it was found that the selected papers used rescue efforts frame, hopelessness frame, political frame, religious frame, ethnic frame, conspiracy frame and
economic frame. It was equally found that hopelessness frame was used more in news report more than others. Finally, it was established that mass media audience believed that the way the abduction was framed in the media has made them to think less of any rescue put by the government.


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The Nigerian press has always been accused of manipulating political crisis to the gains of their owners or the opposition. This accusation was repeated during the long 78 days (November 23 2009 – February 9 2010) that Nigerian late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua was incapacitated due to ill-health. In fact, observers believed that the kind of media war, power play and intrigue that hailed the period almost cost Nigeria her hard-earned unity and democracy. Eventually, Yar’Adua and his handlers irrefragably lost to ill-health and public opinion. However, the late President’s ‘kitchen cabinet’ believed that he lost ultimately to public opinion manipulated by the press. How true was this? How far can we agree with the kitchen cabinet bearing in mind that this type of accusation came up during the scandals of President Nixon of the United States and the ill health of late President John Attah-Mills of Ghana. Based on these complexities, the researchers embarked on this study to investigate the kind of coverage newspapers in Nigeria gave the power vacuum crisis during Yar’ Adua’s tenure in order to establish whether they (newspapers), indeed, manipulated events during those long 78 days. In carrying out this study, four national dailies (The Guardian, The Sun, New Nigerian and Daily Trust Newspapers), were used. Using five units of analysis (news, features, editorials, cartoons and opinion articles) and seven content categories, findings revealed that Nigerian newspapers gave the presidential power vacuum crisis prominence. The results also showed that the issue was adequately covered and took a positive direction. However, it was, also, discovered that Nigerian newspapers frequently covered the power lacuna in their reports which were influenced by regional and ownership factors. Based on these, it was recommended that ownership and regional affiliations should not impact on media reports. And that the media should provide leadership in times of national conflict by setting and consolidating agenda.


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This study examines the influence of child spacing campaigns on the knowledge, attitude and practices of South- East rural women. Using behavioural change theory as the framework, the study adopted survey method as its research design. A total of 384 respondents drawn from the South-East responded to the copies of the questionnaire designed from six research questions raised in the study. After a thorough analysis, it was found that while the mass media campaigns on child spacing have created serious awareness about child spacing in South-East rural communities, the practice is still very low. Some of the problems found to be associated with this low practice include lack of adequate community health facilitators, lack of information on improved child
spacing techniques, urban oriented messages, lack of integration of the rural people in messages/communication meant for their consumption, etc. Based on these findings, it was recommended that, health workers, media researchers, communicators, social workers, guidance counselors and those in the helping profession should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence birth spacing practices among couples with the view to correcting them for an informed and healthy society.


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It is unarguably a fact that in the sociology of natural disasters, the mass media are expected to be serious management tools used to influence people’s preparedness and response. These were the roles Nigerian media were expected to play during the 2012 flood disaster. This study, therefore, looks at the perception of South-Easterners about the role the media played before, during and after the 2012 natural disaster that affected 25 per cent of Nigerians in 28 states. In conducting this study, the researchers used explanatory mixed method design to generate both quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaire and interview. Taro Yamani statistical formula was used to draw a sample of 400 from a population of 16,395,555. A thorough analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data generated in the 12 communities selected for the study revealed that 75 per cent of South-Easterners believed that the media did not play a significant role in creating awareness before the flood. The study equally revealed that 76.30 per cent of them argued that the media did not mobilize Nigerians against the flood and nothing was done by the media to manage the incident. Findings also revealed that the media failed to prepare Nigerians to manage the aftermath of the disaster.
 

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The passage of the Freedom of Information bill into law brought to an end the most exciting legislative odyssey in post colonial Nigeria. After more than a decade, the long awaited FOI bill that was meant to guarantee freedom of the press and access to information was finally passed into law as an Act of the National Assembly. This 32 sections Act, according to the initiators is meant to increase access to public information which were formerly concealed under the Official Secret Act, and tagged 'Classified Documents'. However, as beautiful and well intentioned as this Act might appear, some observers believe it is a serious threat to the nation's internal and external security. Section 11(2) of the Act specifically says that when the demand for any information, including security information, is in public interest, irrespective of the injury it might cause, such must be disclosed. In fact, section 27(1) says that anything contained in the Criminal Code, Penal Code, and the Official Secrets Act shall be made public irrespective of the injury it might cause. With this, legal and security experts fear that this may open windows for serious insecurity, especially in the face of the Boko Haram terrorism. However, others have argued that the provisions of the Act regarding the disclosure of security information are in order, considering the fact that many have hidden under the Official Secret Act to perpetrate a lot of evil in the name of national security. To this end, the researchers sought the opinions of security and legal experts in South-East Nigeria on the provisions of the Act vis a vis their alleged threat to the nation's security. Using both Survey and Focus Group Discussions, findings revealed that the Act does not in any way threaten national security if properly applied.


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One fundamental principle of media business is the fact that media people must always put public interest first in all their dealings. This they are expected to do irrespective of their geographic or ownership leanings. While one recognises the fact that these factors remain contentious in the media circle and sometimes difficult to do away with in media business, the social responsibility principle should always be allowed to govern all media engagements. While some observers argue that this principle rules only in developed world and not in the third world, others argue otherwise. This review looks at whether or not geographical and ownership considerations influence media people in their coverage of political crisis around the world. After a review of some empirical
studies, it is concluded that geographical location and ownership play significant role in media coverage of political crisis.


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Abstract
For over a century now, the attention of communication scholars has shifted from strategic communication to strategic silence with an open invitation for experts to investigate the potency of the latter in the line of communication. As an honour to this invitation, this study investigates the use of strategic silence in interpersonal communication among residents of Enugu Metropolis in Enugu State Nigeria. In conducting this survey, explanatory mixed method research design was used to generate both qualitative and quantitative data using questionnaire and interview. After a thorough analysis, both quantitative and qualitative data revealed that residents of Enugu metropolis use strategic silence in interpersonal communication. Finding also revealed that the respondents use strategic silence both negatively and positively to influence others in the line of communication. Based on these findings, it is recommended that users of strategic silence should always deploy it for positive reasons.


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Abstract
This study espoused the role of the media on the disagreement between the government and its citizens on the issue of deregulating the downstream sector. Using the agenda-setting theory and the explanatory mixed method design, the analysis of data were approached from two dimensions. In determining the sample size for quantitative analysis, the multistage sampling technique was employed, which provided for 16 editions of the newspapers selected. The study revealed that media coverage of the deregulation of the downstream sector was certainly high and very impressive. It was concluded that the media of communication can serve as a potent tool in direction the cause of an event. It was recommended, however, that media organisations should collaborate
with the government in power to work out modalities on how the coverage of the deregulation process would go in other to foster the greater good of society and democracy at large.


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Nomads constitute about 6 percent of the African population and are found in at least 20 different countries across the continent (Muhammed and Abbo, 2010:3). In Nigeria, the nomads who constitute about 7.6 percent (9.8 million) of the country’s population were, before the establishment of the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989, excluded from all formal educational schemes. The establishment of this commission saw the introduction of a special education system to get the hard-to-reach educated. To decentralize the system, so many states, including Jigawa State established the state’s version of NCNE. In 2008, Jigawa State established the Jigawa State Agency for Nomadic Education. To keep to its mandate of getting all nomads in the state educated, the agency adopted two major strategies – Mobile School System and Open Distance Learning. The later strategy is driven by the various community radio stations scattered in all the zones in the state. Three years down the line, how far has the agency gone in educating the nomads? This paper examines the role the community radio stations have played in educating the nomads through Open Radio Distance Learning using the descriptive research method. Findings reveal that students’ enrolment into the system has increased from less than 15 percent in 2008 to over 65 percent in 2011. Literacy level has equally increased by over 60 percent. Currently, the agency boasts of over 518 instructors and over 26,642 students.


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