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The indiscriminate discharge of Cassava mill effluent pose serious environmental and public health implications. This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent using screening and shake flask degradation tests. The mean heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts were 3.4±0.26 x 106cfu/ml and 1.1±0.20 x 106cfu/ml respectively. The microorganisms isolated, characterized and identified include the genus Pseudomonas (15.48%), Bacillus (12.41%), Acetobacter and Rhizopus (10.88%), Corynebacterium (9.33%), Lactobacillus, Micrococcus and Aspergillus (7.79%), Staphylococcus and Penicillium (6.25%) and Saccharomyces species (4.62%). The pH (5.39 ± 0.14), electrical conductivity (2506.90 ± 45.35), sulphate
(210.87 ± 5.31), nitrate (365.28 ± 3.61), phosphate (107.70 ± 2.10), cyanide (19.93 ± 0.25), chemical oxygen demand (1728.33 ± 19.66), biological oxygen demand (1141.51 ± 12.69), iron (206.43±2.05), zinc (54.56 ± 0.62), manganese (19.96 ± 0.35), copper (10.67 ± 0.10) and nickel (3.28 ± 0.46) in mg/l were above the Federal Environmental Protection Agency standard for effluent discharge. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus and Penicillium species which had the highest turbidity were used for bioremediation studies. The consortium of microorganisms demonstrated the highest efficacy. Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand (consortium of Pseudomonas and Bacillus species 97.42%), (Aspergillus and Penicillium species 75.32%) and chemical oxygen demand (Pseudomonas and Bacillus species 37.63%), (Aspergillus and Penicillium species 44.97%). The study has shown that microbial isolates have the potentials of reducing pollution effect thereby enhancing management of cassava mill effluent before eventual discharge into the environment.


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Cassava mill effluent has become a major cause of environmental degradation which affects soil properties. This
study revealed the impact of cassava mill effluent on microbial diversity, physicochemical parameters and heavy
metal concentrations in the receiving soils collected in triplicate between April and June, 2015 from five sites in
Ogwa, Edo State, Nigeria. Standard methods were used for the soil analysis. The mean heterotrophic, coliform
8 8 8 and fungal counts ranged from 1.38 + 4.6x10 CFU/g to 8.90 + 5.5x10 CFU/g, 1.20 + 6.1x10 CFU/g to 9.4 +
8 8 8 5.6x10 CFU/g and 4.17 + 2.4x10 CFU/g to 7.90 + 2.8x10 CFU/g respectively (p<0.05). The microbial isolates
identified in order of decreasing prevalence were Staphylococcus aureus (19.71%), Escherichia coli (12.87%), Proteus
sp. (12.50%), Bacillus sp. and Klebsiella sp. (12.01%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.30%), Penicillium sp. (7.21%),
Aspergillus sp. (6.25%) and Rhizopus sp. (3.13%). The pH values ranged from 5.78 – 6.12, electrical conductivity
(112 - 211 μS/cm), chloride(30.24 – 56.97 mg/kg), sulphate (1.23 – 2.32 mg/kg), nitrate (15.90 – 29.96 mg/kg),
phosphate (10.98 – 20.68 mg/kg), total carbon (3.17 – 5.83%), total nitrogen (0.32 – 0.58%) and moisture
+ + 2+ content (10.65 – 17.63%), Na (42.56 – 80.18 mg/kg), K (78.40 – 147.70 mg/kg), Ca (9.07 – 17.09 mg/kg),
2+ Mg (11.09 – 20.89 mg/kg). The pH at the different sample locations were lower than the control, and other
physicochemical parameters were higher (p<0.05). The concentrations of heavy metals in the contaminated
2+ 2+ 2+ soils are in the following ranges : Fe (7.95 - 14.98 mg/kg), Zn (0.22 - 2.13 mg/kg), Mn (0.35 - 1.18 mg/kg), 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 6+ Cu (1.01 - 1.90 mg/kg), Ni (0.24 - 0.80 mg/kg), Cd (0.001 - 0.60 mg/kg), V (0.19- 0.72 mg/kg), Cr (0.26 - 2+ 1.03 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 - 0.35 mg/kg). These values are still below the permissible limits recommended in Nigeria by the Department of Petroleum Resources except for iron which was higher in all sampled sites and 3+ 2+ significantly different from the control (p<0.05). The order of accumulation of heavy metals was Fe > Cu > 2+ 2+ 6+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ Zn > Mn > Cr > Ni > V > Cd > Pb . The cassava mill effluent negatively affected the soil microbial diversity, physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations in the impacted soils.


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Spices are rich in phytochemicals which are responsible for their observed antioxidant property. This potential can be affected by heat treatment when spices are used as food additives. This research studied the effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant capacity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aframomum angustifolium seeds. The antioxidant capacity was measured in vitro by evaluating the metal chelating activity (MCA), ferric reducing ability (FRA), hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) before and after heat treatment. The percentage metal chelating activity of the extracts
before heating were comparable (p > 0.05) to that of ascorbic acid while the percentage metal chelating activity of the ethanol extract decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 65.99% to 47.62% after heat treatment for 30 min. The percentage hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the aqueous extract was unaffected (p > 0.05) by heat treatment whereas the activity in ethanol extract decreased. The ferric reducing ability of the extracts decreased significantly after heat treatment while the NO scavenging activity increased with heat treatment. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the extracts measured as ascorbic acid equivalents reduced but were not
significantly affected by heat treatment. The results of this study suggest that the antioxidant potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. angustifolium seeds is not totally lost by heat treatment.


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Abstract
Studies have shown inadequate reading materials for the visually impaired in Nigeria. Information technology
has greatly advanced the provision of information to the visually impaired in other industrialized climes. This
study investigated the extent of application of information technology to the transcription of reading materials
for the visually impaired in Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design of the ex-post facto to select 470
personnel as respondents. A questionnaire titled Information Technology Use Scale (α=0.74), and Interview
Schedule (α=0.75), were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment
Correlation. The findings indicate that information technology in transcription was low and a significant positive
relationship between application of information technology and transcription of information materials (r=0.62:
p<0.05). The study recommended among others that Multi-National Corporations should be sensitized to extend
their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities to help in procuring modern information technology
devices and software to enhance transcription.


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The paper examined the impact of Strategic Management on the performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) via competitive advantage, sales and profit.  This was with the view of assessing the impact of Strategic Management on sustainable growth in Nigerian SMEs. A descriptive survey research design was employed for the paper using structured questionnaire and oral interview for data collection. The questionnaire was administered on thirty SMEs owners in four states of Southwest Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Osun and Oyo State. Thus, a total of 120 respondents were purposively sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed using frequency tables, simple percentages and chi-square test. The results showed that Strategic Management practices significantly assist SMEs to gain competitive advantage ( The results further showed that Strategic Management significantly increased their sales ( and improved their profits levels. The paper concluded that, Strategic Management has contributed immensely to the sustainable growth of Small and Medium scale Enterprises in South-West Nigeria and recommended that Strategic Management practice should be adopted by all small and medium business firms in Nigeria.


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This study investigated the effect of air and sun drying methods on the antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. leaves. The total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and ferric reducing power were evaluated using standard spectrophotometric methods against different concentrations (30 to 120µg/ml) of the plant extract and ascorbic acid as reference standard. There was no significant difference in the total antioxidant capacity estimated as ascorbic acid equivalent between the air and sun-dried extracts. A concentration dependent increase in antioxidant capacity was observed in the other assays. The air – dried extract had the highest percentage activity except in the metal chelating and ferric reducing power assays. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the air-dried extract (86.21±1.19%) was significantly higher than ascorbic acid (85.69±0.90%) and the sundried extract (77.14±1.19%) at 120µg/ml. The result of this study suggests a better potential for air drying of basil leaves for use as spices, food additive and in traditional medicine.


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The phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the acetone root extract of Aloe vera was investigated in this study. Different concentrations (200 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml) were prepared and tested against seven different bacterial isolates which included Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Proteus mirabilis. Phytochemical screening of the acetone root extract was done using standard test procedures. Susceptibility testing was done by employing the agar diffusion technique while the microtitre plate method was used for the minimum inhibitory concentration.. The phytochemical screening revealed a high presence of carbohydrates and slight presence of glycosides, alkaloids and saponins. The antimicrobial attribute of the extract indicated highest activity at 200 mg/ml against Streptococcus pyogenes with an inhibitory zone of 22.00 mm while the lowest activity was observed at 50 mg/ml against Proteus mirabilis with zone of inhibition of 5.33mm. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as low as 6.25mg/ml was achieved against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. It is concluded that the phytoconstituents of Aloe vera root were of medicinal importance and had the ability to successfully inhibit the growth of microorganisms which are of significant health concerns to mankind. Thus the plant is probably a suitable choice for the development of new drugs that could be used to treat some ailments which afflict man.


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Nigeria’s neo-liberal reform and privatization programme of State Owned Enterprises promoted toward industrialization failed because they were prematurely privatized under a dysfunctional state and controlled by extractive political institution whose agenda is to secure rent. Public firm is a product that must evolve through the Product life cycle stages and can only be privatized at maturity stage where the firm has outgrown threats from market externalities. The objective of this study is to establish the high failure pattern associated within the product life cycle timeframe template that cut across privatized firms in Nigeria, using DSC as a case study. The study adopted Focus Group Study as methodology and Institutionalist Political Economy (IPE) serves as theoretical framework to justify state- market relationship captured in developmental crisis. Successful privatization requires building strong political and bureaucratic (regulatory) institutions that are democratic, inclusive, observe corporate governance (rule of law), accountable and responsible.t


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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been known as vital technologies that are associated with production mechanisms for technological progress. The study examined the impact of ICT on project planning activities in Nigerian food and beverage industry. Data from primary sources were obtained through the use of questionnaire and interview scheduled on one hundred and seventy five (175) purposively selected users of ICT across three Departments of food and beverage firms in Nigeria. This was with a view to elicit information on the level of outputs and significance of the application of ICT to the performance of the industry. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis of variance shows that there were significant difference in the mean rank of respondents’ opinion on ICT to improve quality (F=110.07, P = 0.05), reduce cost (F=110.07, p<0.05), improves process (F=140.93, p<0.05), and reduce processing time (F=184.36, p<0.05). Evidence shows that Internet usage, Virtual Private Network (VPN), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) had strong impact on product quality, process improvement, cost and time reduction. It was concluded that the absence of ICT in the firm will slow down the effective coordination of raw materials.


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Tony Blair, a former British Prime Minister once described Africa as a ‘scar on the conscience of the world.’ An interpretative commentary on Blair’s remark would mean that Africa is an embarrassment to the comity of progressive nations in the international system because of the high level of underdevelopment caused especially by corruption. The paper therefore seeks to find out the possibility of influencing African political system through the application of Christian morality using Nigeria as a case study. This is against the backdrop of the renewed call by some prominent Nigerian Christians to actively participate in Nigerian politics with the hope that Christian morality may positively colour governmental policies in terms of the provision of quality services to its citizens. The paper adopts a comparative historical methodology to interrogate the synergy between politics and religion within the Nigerian space and find out that as long as Nigerians are unable to blend religious and humanistic values with political participation, the country may continue to remain in the web of political, social and economic underdevelopment. In the light of the above, the paper recommends some of the following; that Christians should form a political party as done in Germany, set up a Christian monitoring group as a watch dog on politicians, adopt the whistle blowing technique that will expose irregularities in the system, churches should avoid exposed corrupt politician, discourage over emphasis on posterity gospel more that righteousness, and refuse any form of patronage from the state.


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The focus of this paper is on the identification of determinants of organizational commitment

and employee job satisfaction. It is viewed as one of the basic concepts describing the relationship between an employee and an organization. In this paper determinant of organizational commitment, factors conditioning development of three organizational commitment components and various variables responsible for employee satisfaction is been discussed. These variables are: Organization development factors, Job security factors, Work task factors, Policies of compensation and benefit factor and opportunities in the organization. Other factors discussed which give satisfaction to employees’ in cl ud e: promotion and career development, equitable rewards and supportive colleagues; also discussed are the various ways by which one can improve employee satisfaction. The main objective of this study is to discuss the above mentioned variables and examine the major determinants of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction and highlight the factors that can enhance employee’s job satisfaction. This paper adopts the exploratory and content methods analysis of various relevant literatures to review the concepts of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction. The paper recommends that Organizational managers should try their best to evaluate why employees leave or what kindles their dissatisfaction.


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The focus of this paper is on Human Resources accounting which has not been properly integrated into the financial statement of various organizations and being regarded as assets. The main purpose of this study is to examine the issues involved in valuing human resource /people working in organizations, which has been regarded as the most valuable assets in business organizations, the benefits of attaching values and the challenges and obstacles of implementing the Human Resource accounting disclosures of such values in the firm’s statement of financial position. In the pursuit of the focus of this study, the paper adopts exploratory and content analysis methods of secondary data. The paper reveals that the exponent of human resources valuation models in most cases has not dealt with the mode of recording and disclosure of the accounting information relating to human resources in the books of account or financial statements of the organization. In most cases, the human resource accounting information is given in the form of supplementary information attached to the financial statements. This is of great concern to accounting professionals and practitioners. The paper concludes that considerable research done is due to the increasing importance of human capital in the economy to develop the concepts and methods of valuing human resource that has been recognized as human resources accounting (HRA), and that there is a great need for evolving a system of accounting for human resource that is acceptable to professional accountants, managers and other decision makers – investors, creditors and other stakeholders.

 


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Stability in price level is one of the main broad objectives of most economies over the world. Therefore, this study investigates the long-run relationship of macroeconomic variables effect on consumer price index from 1st quarter of 1998 to 4th quarter of 2015 and sourced data from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical bulletin. The study adopted Park (1992) Canonical Co-integration regression (CRR) technique of analysis against other studies that used Vector Autoregressive Error Correction Model (VECM), Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Error Correction Model (ECM). The study found out that, in the long-run, macroeconomic variables such as real income, money supply and exchange rate among others contributed positively and significantly to price level, while interest rate exert a negative significant effect. These explanatory variables combined to significantly influence the variations in CPI in Nigeria as much as 98% while the stochastic error term (U1) capture 2%. The study recommends that Nigeria government should pursue with vigour, policies that will enhance the reduction of the general price level and increased productive capacity of goods and services. Such policies may include wage control/freeze, monetary policy (reduction in money supply), good management of foreign exchange, total ban on importation of some goods and increase in domestic production of goods and services.


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In a time when establishing and maintaining of market advantage is crucial in the world at large and in the hotel business in particular, the use of technical innovation such as the hotel reservation system becomes a competitive necessity in the hotel busi-ness. This leads to digitalizing this business and improving its operations. In view of this, this paper has provided an overview of Ho-tel Reservation System (HRS), provided a digital design for the such system. It also discusses the advantages associated with integrat-ing the system across the hotel business and what and where the potential gains are in Nigeria. The hotel reservation system developed in this work, when fully implemented, will go a long way to addressing the problem faced by the hotel management in the area of managing their customer’s booking, management of customer’s information and having quick access to information.


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This study assessed the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia peruviana for amino acid contents, fatty acids composition and Phytochemical properties. The parameters of interest were determined using standard methods.The study revealed the main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in raw and boiled thevetia peruviana seed. The unsaturated fatty acids are palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3) and erucic acid (C22:1). Oleic acid is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid followed by linoleic acid with values as follows, (54.75 % and 21.48 %) while for boiled (52.45 % and 18.95 %) respectively in each case. Myristic acid, Pamlitic acid, Stearic acid and Behenic acid are the saturated fatty acid. Also, the value of oleic acid (C18:1) reduced (52.45 %) due to the effect of boiling, while the saturated fatty of pamlitic acid (C16:0) increased (19.06 %) due to the effect of boiling. The study further revealed that all the essential amino acids required in human and animal diet were present in both raw and boiled seed of Thevetia peruviana. Glutamate acid has the most abundant in both raw and boiled sample (18.45 %) and (19.99 %) respectively while the lowest of all in raw is Cysteine (1.18 %) and in the boiled Histidine (1.25 %) which is as a result of boiling.The Phytochemical screening on the oil revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The boiling has little reduction on the characteristics of boiled thevetia peruviana seed.


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The e-banking systems in Nigeria is witnessing a large number of users, thereby encouraging the cashless economy policy proposed by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Hence, these systems need to be highly secured and reliable. This is because any compromise by this system can breach the customer’s trust in using such systems for making transactions thereby discouraging the cashless policy agenda. Based on this the CBN is proposing the use of fingerprint biometric as a means of identification of any bank customer in Nigeria. However, since most fingerprint biometric systems can accept and grant access to artificial fingerprint, it is therefore clear that only fingerprint will not be suitable in securing banking system. Thus, the primary research objective of this paper is to propose a multifactor biometric model that would assist in creating a highly secured banking application in Nigeria using human physiological features. Based on the verification carried out on the model presented in this paper, it can therefore be sanctify to providing highly secured banking system in Nigeria if fully implemented.


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In a time when establishing and maintaining of market advantage is crucial in the world at large and in the hotel business in particular, the use of technical innovation such as the hotel reservation system becomes a competitive necessity in the hotel busi-ness. This leads to digitalizing this business and improving its operations. In view of this, this paper has provided an overview of Ho-tel Reservation System (HRS), provided a digital design for the such system. It also discusses the advantages associated with integrat-ing the system across the hotel business and what and where the potential gains are in Nigeria. The hotel reservation system developed in this work, when fully implemented, will go a long way to addressing the problem faced by the hotel management in the area of managing their customer’s booking, management of customer’s information and having quick access to information.


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Abstract
Transformation is the creation and change of a whole new form, function or structure. To transform is to create something new that has never existed before and could not be predicted from the past. The effort put in place by public administrators in the transforming process is a catalyst for growth, national renewal and a lasting source of comparative advantage, which will become very significant and paramount to the state. As a sovereign state, Nigeria has failed to meet the basic human needs of its population; it lacks transparent and accountable political institutions and it has not produced sustainable or equitable economic growth. Against this backdrop this paper is set to examine innovations and best practices by Nigerian public administrators in a democratic society towards transformation process, as it recognizes the variety of operational and strategic challenges, which policymakers ought to address, in order to achieve ultimate goal and raise the quality of service delivery to the citizens. This study drew its analysis from empirical studies using the transformation theory to further buttress the transformation process. The study submits that in spite of daunting challenges such as lack of political and bureaucratic commitments, some progress has been made by the public administrators towards achieving sustainable democratic environment and repositioning administration for higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery. Accordingly, recommendations were made to enable administrators fare better in the discharge of their duties to the citizens and to the society in general.


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Access to hygienic water is becoming difficult by the day, especially in developing economies. The people of Uromi in the Esan or Ishan region of Nigeria find it challenging to access drinkable water even in the 21st century. The problem of water has been an issue in Uromi since the pre-colonial era. Before the imposition of British colonial rule in Nigeria, the Uromi people resulted to digging pits to trap running rain water as their main source of water, which of course was unhygienic. Colonial documents obtained from the National Archives Ibadan, Nigeria were analysed and the findings reveals the spirited efforts made by the colonial regime to provide accessible and hygienic water for the people of Uromi. However, the colonial attempt was not very successful because of the Uromi topography, but that attempt improved the quality of water available to the people.


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This study discusses the peculiar nature of political participation as well as the attendant violence that characterize it in post independent Nigeria. Central to discussion is identification of the various factors which influence electoral violence and the extent to which it has inhibited national cohesion and democratic values. The study concludes that, Nigeria should produce selfless and visionary leaders, educated masses as well as operating within the frame work of true federalism so as to make appreciable improvement on her development strides. The study therefore recommends discouragement of use of money and material gift during elections, reduction of remuneration of political office seekers, commensurate punishment for culprits’ as well as independence of the independent Electoral Commission should be truly granted.


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The study examined the exchange rate fluctuation, stock market performance and economic growth in Nigeria. The study covers the period 1999 (when democratic rule returned to Nigeria) to the second quarter of 2016. The study adopted VAR Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Wald Tests, VAR approach to derive the variance error decomposition and impulse function response. The empirical results found out that none of the variables has power to predict real growth in Nigeria. However, exchange rate has a causal feedback from growth rate, ASI, money supply and government capital expenditure. The findings also showed a causality flow from consumption to stock prices and exchange rate fairly caused ASI, but there is no causal relationship between inflation and naira value. The study revealed that exchange rate shocks are crucial factors in explaining economic growth and growth in stock market in the long run. It is recommended that conscious efforts should be made by policy makers to reduce exchange rate variability and to encourage improvement in stock market performance. It is also recommended that the continued devaluation of the naira and incessant depreciation of the currency against major foreign currencies should be checkmated by encouraging greater productivity in local commodities in which the country has comparative advantage.


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This paper analysed the syntactic features used by online commenters on the alleged national assembly fuel subsidy bribery scandal. The study employed both primary and secondary sources. The primary source included 120 purposively selected Vanguard Online readers’ comments. Purposive sampling technique was used to select comments that focus on topical issues that bordered on fuel subsidy. The choice of vanguard is based on the peculiar nature of the comments posted on the site. The secondary source included books, journal, articles and the internet. The data selected were analysed using Halliday and Mathiessen’s (2004) Systemic Functional Grammar. This is because SFG is based on the choices that grammar makes available to speakers and writers. The results of the study showed that the dominant syntactic structures such as paratactic constructions, hypotactic constructions, thematisation and verbalised process option were used to achieve equal and unequal arrangement of utterances, and to draw attention to inequality in the society. The study concluded that the commenters’ syntactic choices on the alleged national assembly fuel subsidy committee bribery scandal were shaped by their understanding of the socio-political situation in Nigeria.


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   The paper seeks to unveil the historical antecedent of the phenomenon of ethnic militancy in Nigeria premised on the high level of deprivation, marginalization, injustice, corruption and inequitable distribution of natural resources; especially among different levels of government and the political class which are deduced to be harbinger of youth restiveness and ethnic militia. The paper employs the use of historical methodology to depict the moribund consequences of the phenomenon to the nascent democracy, and presupposes that the 1999 constitution was fatally flawed. In the corollary, the paper posited that until a new constitution is drawn up by Nigerians through an all inclusive, process-led, open and transparent mechanism, the search for a panacea for an enduring democratic order and nation building remains a mirage.


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Abstract

Medical Information resources are useless when access is not provided. This fundamental function is within the
concept of cataloguing and classification. Thus, cataloguing and classification is an essential process that provides access
to all acquired information resources of the medical libraries for it allows librarians to gives details bibliographic
description, subject analysis and assignment of classification notation to medical information resources. This paper
focuses of the effects of the major three bibliographic and information retrieval tools and techniques used for medical
information organization.
These Tools Are: Library of congress classification scheme (NLC), National library of Medicine classification
scheme (NLMC) and Dewey decimal classification scheme (DDC).


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Nigeria’s failure to develop is captured in its inability to either naturally or rationally select a state adaptation model that is in alignment with its structure, strategy and process. Given Nigeria’s federal disposition, adopting an over-centralized federal structure consequently produced a single resource economy, resources scarcity, elite resource competition, rent and decay. To pursue development as captured in the Vision 202020, Nigeria must reconfigure its state adaptation model to give critical concern to complexities of variables and institutions that organically and evolutionary drives this process. The paper included conceptualization of issues, constructed state adaptation model and S-BEP analytical framework for reversing rent and releasing resources for development. It acquired the theory of cooperativity and organizational design for explaining the inevitable cooperative interactions of institutions necessary to align Nigeria’s federalism to decentralization(structure), diversification(strategy) and devolution-decision-making(process) (3D) in a democracy to create efficient bureaucracy, robust complementary economy and consolidated democracy respectively. Empirical evidence in Nigeria was deployed to demonstrate the scientific viability and reliability of the model and analytical framework constructed for this research.


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