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Abstract: This study revealed the microbial contamination of Naira notes in relation to season as well the
antibiogram on224 pieces of Naira notes collected from some village markets in Esan Land. Five naira (N5), Ten
naira (N10) and One Thousand naira (N1000) had contamination rates of 19.43%, 17.72% and 5.33% respectively.
The contamination rates were 23.51% for Ujiogba, 21.12% for Ogwa and 16.99% for Ekpon markets. Among the
gram positive isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis had antimicrobial resistance rate of 86.70% against ampicillin
and Staphylococcus aureushad the least of 30.00% against amoxicillin. Among the gram negative isolates,
Escherichia coli had resistance rate of 90.00% against ampicillin while Proteus sp. had the least of 40.00% against
augumentin. The study has revealed that the lower denominations of Naira notes had higher microbial contamination
rate during the rainy season than the dry season at p<0.05. This work recommend Education/enlightenment on
proper handling/storage of Naira notes and personal hygiene would asa way out.


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      Although widows constitute as much as 25 percent of the adult female population and widowers about 7.5 percent of the adult male population in many African societies, they have been topics of little interest to the researchers in the humanistic disciplines. The available literature on widowhood focuses almost entirely on cultural norms of widow remarriage and the adverse implication of widowhood practices. No emphasis is laid on how much the practices contribute to the survival and evolution of groups. Not much is known about the widowers and the changing roles of widowhood as modernity demands. It is in order to arrest these lapses that the paper employs the use of historical methodology to fathom out the realities of widowhood and its socio-economic implication in Esan land. The study starts by edifying the mode of inheritance as entrenched by the customs and tradition of the Esan people and interrogates the socio-economic positions of widows from 1981-2005 in order to allay the challenges of widows in the international rebirth milieu.        


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Surprisingly the gap between the left and the right is about to close as there is consensus about the coming anarchy spiraling paradoxically from the weakest link of global capitalism- Africa. The cause of the coming anarchy varies between left and right: for rightist, champion by Kaplan and Fukuyama whose works intensify these arguments, state failure expressed in political decay will degenerate into rent governance from depleting resources and exploding population in Africa, leading to resources competition, crisis and anarchy. For the left, the coming anarchy though came from state failure but organically originated from unequal relations intensified by unfettered capitalism expressed through the shock doctrine. The outcome of the coming anarchy is disaster capitalism outraged to consume global capitalism through the instrument of creative destruction. Africa is currently face with two alternative policy option: hibernation or rebootism. The paper recommended rebootism with six policy outlines to reverse the coming anarchy and reconstruct Africa's evolution to maturity or development.


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This study revealed the microbial contamination of Naira notes in relation to season as well the antibiogram on224 pieces of Naira notes collected from some village markets in Esan Land. Five naira (N5), Ten naira (N10) and One Thousand naira (N1000) had contamination rates of 19.43%, 17.72% and 5.33% respectively. The contamination rates were 23.51% for Ujiogba, 21.12% for Ogwa and 16.99% for Ekpon markets. Among the gram positive isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis had antimicrobial resistance rate of 86.70% against ampicillin and Staphylococcus aureushad the least of 30.00% against amoxicillin. Among the gram negative isolates, Escherichia coli had resistance rate of 90.00% against ampicillin while Proteus sp. had the least of 40.00% against augumentin. The study has revealed that the lower denominations of Naira notes had higher microbial contamination rate during the rainy season than the dry season at p<0.05. This work recommend Education/enlightenment on proper handling/storage of Naira notes and personal hygiene would asa way out.


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Water samples were collected for analysis from dug reservoirs in different residential areas of Ogwa communities in Edo state, Nigeria. Physico-chemical properties of these water samples were determined using standard analytical procedures. Samples were collected from five  different sites and analyzed for following parameters such as color, odor, taste, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness and concentration of principal cations and anions such as Na+, K+,Mn2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, phosphate PO42- and nitrate NO3-. The results of the physico-chemical analysis were obtained in the following range pH (5.71- 6.14), temperature (31.1-31.9˚c), turbidity (0.12-0.37mg/l), conductivity (24.92-113.03µS/cm), odor (odorless), chloride (0.00 -41.34 mg/l), total dissolved solids (13.06- 40.45mg/l), total suspended solids (0.00-0.59mg/l), total hardness (2.6-7.8mg/l), Colour (1-2ptCO), Sulphate (12.5-194mg/l), Phosphate (0.004- 0.007mg/l) and Nitrate (0.23-2.15mg/l) .The concentrations of the metals can also be expressed in the following range; Na+ (2-20 mg/l), K+ (1-3 mg/l), Mn2+(2.5-9.34 mg/l), Fe2+(0.32-1.48mg/l). The data showed that there is variation in the investigated parameters and the highest value of physico-chemical parameters were obtained in Iyekeki. The concentrations of the investigated parameters of water samples conform to the permissible limits set by World Health Organization except that the pH values of the water samples were below the standards set by WHO/Nigeria standard of drinking water and the concentrations of manganese in the water samples exceed the standard set by World Health Organization. 


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There is a dangerous vibration among most post-colonial Nigerians that the unity and corporate existence of the modern Nigerian state rest on the delicate political balance between the northern and southern parts of the country. The vibration is often heightened during national engagement especially national elections. The paper is therefore an attempt to remind modern Nigerians that before the British colonial intervention, pre-colonial Nigerian people had evolved a web of mutual understanding centered on socio-economic and political relationship and interdependence. The paper adopted historical approach by concentrating and emphasizing those historical areas of similarities and connectivity among pre-colonial Nigerian people. This approach brings to the fore the convergent rather than divergent elements capable of promoting peaceful co-existence among post-colonial Nigerians.


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The paper draws attention to the need to incorporate some aspects of African pre-colonial judicial practices in post-colonial administration of justice in Africa as that would aid in the mitigation of crisis and conflict through alternative dispute resolution mechanism. This is argued against the backdrop that laws are instruments meant to regulate the society for the purpose of engendering peaceful co-existence. In pre-colonial Africa, the administration of justice rested on the twin connected pillars of reverence for elders and fear of false oath swearing. Using the Uromi of Edo State, Nigeria as a case study, the paper argues that colonial legal tradition in Africa displaced the twin-pillar of pre-colonial justice system with the practice of over reliance on material evidence to determine the outcome of litigation. The paper concludes that the resultant effect is that postcolonial African judicial system is unable to bridge peace among disputants


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Interest rate has been recognized as an essential tool for the sustainability of real sector across many countries in which agricultural sector is one of the prominent sectors in every economy. In Nigeria however, finance has remained a major challenge of the agricultural production for the procurement of inputs, such as seeds, implements and fertilizers over the years. All efforts channeled to this sector with anticipated result on agricultural productivity have not boosted the performances of the real sector. This study examined the effect of interest rate on agricultural output in Nigeria using stationary, co-integration test, Granger Causality test and ordinary least square approach. The study applied time series data from Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics which spanned from 1980-2014. The unit root test employed showed that the variables were stationary in the short run and co-integration test confirmed a long run relationship between the variables. The empirical result revealed negative relationship between interest rate and agricultural output in the model. Furth ermore, bank credit to agricultural sector, population growth rate, government expenditure on education and infrastructural facilities used as other control variables have positive effect on agricultural output. Finally, Granger Causality test confirmed both uni and bi-directional relationship in the long run. The study therefore concluded that agricultural output was significantly influenced by dynamic variables such as interest rate, bank credit to agricultural sector, population growth rate, government expenditure on education and infrastructural facilities on road in Nigeria during the study period.


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Rice milling enterprise is critical to agricbusiness and is one of the most food processing business that can serve as a means for conserving foreign exchange in Nigeria. The study assessed the agribusiness environment of the small scale rice-milling industry and examined the technology capacity of the paddy farmers. Twenty-Five (25) questionnaires were administered on selected paddy farmers, and rice millers to make a total of fifty (50). The result showed that men played dominant roles in paddy rice farming in the study area.  About 90% of the rice farmers had put in at least ten years and above.  About 26% of respondents were illiterates and 36.6% of farmers practiced mixed farming.  Most (76.4%) of them used their own seed.  About 47% of farmers employed “from the top” while the remaining 53% used “from the bottom” for harvesting.  Many of the farmers employed different parboiling and drying methods which led to variation in the quality of the milled rice.  The implication of these findings as they relate to increase rice production and the economic well-being of the stakeholders is discussed.

 


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The paper seeks to unveil the historical antecedent of the phenomenon of
ethnic militancy in Nigeria premised on the high level of deprivation, marginalization,
injustice, corruption and inequitable distribution of natural resources; especially
among different levels of government and the political class which are deduced to be
harbinger of youth restiveness and ethnic militia. The paper employs the use of
historical methodology to depict the moribund consequences of the phenomenon to
the nascent democracy, and presupposes that the 1999 constitution was fatally flawed.
In the corollary, the paper posited that until a new constitution is drawn up by
Nigerians through an all inclusive, process-led, open and transparent mechanism, the
search for a panacea for an enduring democratic order and nation building remains a
mirage.


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Nigerian historiography is divided into three phases: the pre-colonial, colonial and postcolonial periods. Whereas the pre-colonial history is dominated by the political and social activities of the Nigerian people, its pre-colonial political aspects mainly focused on the establishment and growth of communities. Many historians have argued that the pre-colonial establishment of the Uromi community was occasioned by the activities in the Benin kingdom. This paper re-assesses this age-long historical position that the Uromi community of Esanland and the whole of Esan were established by migrants from Benin kingdom. The paper also questioned the intellectual foundation for such popularly accepted account that has determined the nature of Edoid historiography. Though the paper agues that some Benin migrants settled in the Esan area of Nigeria and subsequently influenced Uromi sociopolitical structure, it is however not enough to conclude on that basis that the Esan area, where Uromi is located, is a total creation of Benin. The thesis of this paper therefore questions the widely accepted claim of a Benin hegemonic establishment of Uromi and concludes that such traditions of origin rest on unsubstantiated assumption.


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ABSTRACT
In this work we gave a brief reviewed on magnetic materials lithium, molybdenum, with molybdenum incorporated into silicon, their magnetization and spin dependency. Computers, floppy disks and hard disk record on a thin magnetic coating that exhibits some magnetic properties. Computational results of molybdenum and molybdenum with silicene were performed and their effects on computer devices were found to be of immense contribution to computer development. DFT calculation was carried out to obtain the total and minimum energy of magnetic materials which help to justify the stable point of the materials. Molybdenum Materials with spin dependency shows lower minimum and stability point. Without spin shows lower bulk modulus and also lower lattice constant.


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Sachet water is the ultimate source of drinking water in Nigeria. Twelve brands of sachet water
vended in Ugbor village, Oredo Local Government Area, Benin City were analysed to determine
the sensory properties, pH and the bacteriological quality using standard methods. Antibiotic
susceptibility profile of the bacteria isolates was carried out using the disc diffusion method. All
the samples were clear and odourless. The pH readings of the water samples ranged between 5.0
and 7.2. Bacterial growths were recorded in eleven out of the twelve water samples. The total
heterotrophic count was between 2.2 -8.9×101
cfu/ml. Coliforms were present in six of the water
samples with a count of 2.2-4.3×101
cfu/ml. The isolates were identified as Staphylococcus
aureus, Pseudomonas sp, Aeromonas sp, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Bacillus badius,
Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. Staphylococcus aureus had the highest percentage
occurrence of 24% while Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium sp. had the lowest
percentage occurrence of 8% each. It was observed that all of the isolates were resistant to
Ceftazidime (caz), Cefuroxime (crx), and Augmentin (aug) and sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (cpr)
and Ofloxacin (ofl). Most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin (gen) except for
Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris. Most of the isolates were resistant to
Cefixime (cxm) except for Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus badius.
Eleven of the twelve sachet water samples studied did not meet WHO standard for drinking
water, hence, routine monitoring of producers of sachet water should be enforced.


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This study examines the patterns and impacts of rice production and technological efficiency on economic growth in some selected countries. Data used for the study covered the period 1990-2015 and were all obtained from Word Bank Development Index online.  Descriptive and panel data techniques were employed in the analysis. The Panel regression results reveals that the F-statistics value for the fixed effect model exceeds (65.20) that of the Pooled OLS (58.1) at 1% level of significance, necessitating the adoption of the fixed effect model, with an adjusted R2 value of 0.86. The empirical findings reveal that the countries exhibit differential rates of technology, necessitating some of the countries having technological efficiency values higher than the mean value of the entire sampled countries. The results further show that rice production index and technological efficiency are positive and significant to stimulating economic growth in the sampled countries. Hence, domestic production of rice induces positive spill-overs on income, employment and poverty reduction.   We recommend rice production enhancement policies as well is increased technological know-how should be encouraged in order to enhance economic growth in these countries


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Three lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains; Pediococcus pentosaceus IO1, Tetragenococcus halophilus PO9 and Lactobacillus cellobiosus BE1 isolated from different traditionally fermented products were evaluated for their bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus
and the influence of pH and heat treatment on their bacteriocin activity was assessed. The crude bacteriocins produced by the LAB strains were highly thermostable, retaining their activity even after heat treatment at 115 oC for 15 min, and stable at pH range of 2 – 9 with higher activity at acidic pH (pH 2 and 5). These results indicate that the bacteriocins produced by bacteriocinogenic LAB isolates could be used as biopreservatives in acidic and heat-processed foods.


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Governance has become so vast and complex that the government of the people, for the people and by the people has become the government of the people, by the government and for the people. The logic behind the idea of government supports the development of political and administrative structures that offer the potentials for political stability and national development. The public servant in this regard plays a significant role in the successful achievement of good governance. This study is expected to explain the relationship between politicians, public servants and good governance while it further revealed the efficiency of the application of the law in force, the efficacy of the decisions made by the government, and the political responsibility and accountability of elected officials in relation to the demand expressed by civil society. The study is qualitative in nature, as it based its theoretical framework on structural functionalism. It submits that there is the need for full respect for citizen’s rights as the public service is a major change agent in Nigeria’s quest for enhanced progress, hence the on-going reformation of the Nigerian public service is in line to achieve the purpose of good governance and deal with the challenges therein.


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The ecological crises in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is not unconnected to several factors, ranging from degradation and pollution; induced as a result of trade with Europe and eventual commercialization of the area by western countries. But all these were not to be if not for the demythologization of the traditional ecological myths through western Christianity. The active role of the missionaries made them accomplices in opening-up of the area to subsequent ecological crises. The paper therefore, aims to establish the argument that the demythologization of the myths that preserve the Niger Delta environment preceded and gave the way for ecological crises that are prevalent in Niger Delta area. The trend of the demythologization observed from the colonial to neo-colonial period, is therefore, instructive in the search for solution for the ecological crises in the Niger Delta area. Findings further shows that the myths were more effective than the government laws and policies on the protection of the environment, and that Christianity has found a replacement for these myths. Using both literal criticism approach the paper suggest a replacement of the myths by a combination of government and Christian efforts being a dominant religion in the area.


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ABSTRACT This contribution was motivated by the need to investigate the determinants of the
changing volume of corporate annual reports. The study sample was 12 banks purposively selected
from the universe of banks quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2014. The sample
was restricted to 120 firm-year with consistent regression data. The study adopted the balanced
panel data regression technique with a preference for the random effect model since the estimated
coefficients of both models did not vary significantly. The study found a positive and statistically
significant relationship between compulsory disclosure, narrative disclosure, product page count
and the volume of the corporate annual report. The relationship between the control variables of
firm size and age is insignificant. By implication, there was evidence of optimum use of corporate
annual report for governance and accountability, information asymmetry and corporate control
and integrated marketing communication. Against the backdrop of the multidimensional usefulness
of the corporate annual report, we recommend that all corporate stakeholders should extensively
rely on the document for any decision concerning corporate activities. The current study is
restricted to Nigerian quoted banks; we recommend a more robust study that will integrate other
Nigerian quoted companies, to help for efficient and extensive generalization.


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Cellulose modifications through grafting of active monomers have been found to enhance the sorption properties of cellulosic agricultural waste materials in the uptake of materials from solutions and in water treatment. Initial compositional analysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a fibrous matter left after cane sugar extraction from sugarcane, showed a cellulose content of 40.21 %; hemicellulose, 25.8 %; lignin, 22.9 %; ash content, 1.72 % and moisture content of 9.41 %. The cellulose was extracted from the SCB using alkaline extraction with sodium hydroxide followed by bleaching with sodium hypochlorite. It gave a cellulose yield of 53.13 %. Acrylamide monomer was grafted unto the cellulose under optimum conditions of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) concentration of 0.015 M, 2 hours reaction time and a monomer to cellulose ratio of 3:1 (w/v). These conditions favoured increase in graft and graft efficiency percent. 


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The study investigated the anti-microbial activities of the leaves of Senna occidentalis in the treatment of some bacteria diseases. 385.50g of Senna occidentalis leaves was plucked in an open field of Zebe, Ajara Agamathan in Badagry, Lagos State and was subjected to hydro-distillation by the use of Clevenger apparatus for 4hours. The volatile oil obtained was bottled and weighed with a percentage yield of 0.078%. The oil from the leaves were cultured (with some antibiotics used as control) Amoxillin, Cotrimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin, Nalidixicin, Ofloxacin, Agumetin, Colistin on each nutrient agar (ASA) plates at 37 0C for 24 hours and were tested against some organisms such as: (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Sp., Bacillus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., Klebsilia Sp). The study revealed that the essential oil extracted did not inhibit activity against all the organisms. This indicates that oil extracted from Senna occidentalis leaves cannot be used to control the microbes at the (0.2ml) concentraion used. Further investigation showed that two (Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin) of the entire antibiotics used as control inhibited the growth of the microbes. Thus, an infection caused by senna occidentalis can be cured by Ciproflaxocin and Oflaxocin antibiotics.


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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the effect of ethnicity in the 2015 elections in Nigeria. The phenomenon of ethnicity has taken an alarming dimension in Nigeria, such that elections had become ethnically oriented. Also, ethnicity has been elevated to dominate national discourse, controls how people think and talk and determines what they support or oppose. Therefore, the electorates were thus ethnically conscious during the 2015 electoral period in Nigeria. For instance, ethnicity became so pronounced in the core North-West, North-Central, North-East Geo-Political zones of Nigeria mostly by the Hausa/Fulani which was the stronghold of General Muhammadu Buhari (Rtd) of the All Peoples Progressive Party (APC) where the electorates vote cast turned-out was 92.8% to his favour. While, in the South–South Geo-political Zone most of the electorates voted massively for former President Good Ebele Jonathan of the People‟s Democratic Party (PDP). In addition the South-East Geo-political Zone was not left out for ethnic party system. For instance, the All Progressive Grand Alliance Party (APGA) that was rooted among the Ibos, was massively voted for by the Ibos. This paper examines the nature of ethnicity, how it has affected the electorates and elections, and how to manage consequence ones in view of concretizing oneness, though our tribes may differ. The paper which was based on secondary sources of data about the voting pattern reveals that majority of the Hausa/Fulani of the ethnic origins that lives in South-East, South-West and South–South Geo-Political Zones in Nigeria travelled home to cast their votes in support of General Muhammadu Buhari who they called “Sai Baba,” “Sai Buhari” which means “their own”. However, the paper concludes by making recommendations to Nigerians, if unity and oneness in the country is envisaged


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The significant role of agricultural sector cannot be underestimated in any nation. It has been the source of feeding of the populace and income generation for other developmental activities. As a result, various governments have been making concerted efforts to improve economic growth and agricultural productivity through agricultural credit but rarely one can see any improvement in the sector. It is in line with these its fundamental role that this study makes a giant stride to examine the relationship between agricultural credit and economic growth in Nigeria. The study employed time series data from Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics which spanned from 1986-2014. This study carried out Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to investigate the variables. The findings showed that short and long run relationship existed between agricultural credit and economic growth in both short and long run respectively. Moreover, real exchange rate and private domestic investment as control variables had direct effect on economic growth whereas inflation rate revealed an inverse relationship in the model. The study concluded that economic growth is influenced by dynamic variables such as credit to agricultural sector, real exchange rate, real interest rate, private domestic investment and inflation rate in Nigeria. The study therefore suggested that concerted efforts should be made by policy makers to increase the level of productivity of agricultural sector in Nigeria through adequate credit to the sector so as to boost the growth of the economy.


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This study identified, categorized project scope management practices employed by telecommunication organization in the implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) projects. The study examined the factors influencing the choice of scope management practices on ICT projects implementation among telecommunication organizations in Nigeria. The study was carried out with the use of primary data source which were obtained through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule to a total of one hundred and twenty five (125) project sponsors, one hundred and twenty five (125) project managers/coordinators and one hundred and twenty five project team members on ICT projects implemented by telecommunication organizations in Nigeria. This was used to elicit information on the factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices among telecommunication organizations in implementing ICT projects. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed the major adopted factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices among telecommunication organizations in implementing ICT projects were Competitive Advantage, Organizational Process Assets, Expert Judgment, Complex Activity List, Complex Project Scope Statement, Limited Resources, Fast Tracking, Project Delays, Client Demand, Technical Skills Required, Dynamism of Technology and Return on Investment. All of these factors had a mean rank of 3.50 and above on a 5 point-likert scale. Four of these factors were identified to be major factors influencing the choice of project scope management practices employed by telecommunication organizations implementing ICT projects. These include Competitive Advantage (58.5%), Complex Project Scope Statement (85.8%), Client’s Demand (60.9%) and Return on Investment (52.5%). Correlation analysis revealed that Organizational process assets (r = .448**: p<0.05), Expert Judgment (r = .261**: p<0.05), Complex project scope statement (r = .260**: p<0.05), Limited resources (r = -.425**: p<0.05), Client’s demand (r = .533**: p<0.05), and Returns on investment (r = .309**: p<0.05) were shown to have a significant relationship with the choice of project scope management practices employed by the organizations. In conclusion, the study revealed that Organizational process assets, Expert judgment, Complex project scope statement, Limited resources, client’s demand and Return on Investment are factors that significantly influence the choice of project scope management practices in the telecommunication organizations.


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The present study aimed at studying the bacteriological quality of African Salads and antibiotics resistance
pattern of isolates before and after plasmid curing to ascertain if the resistance to multiple antimicrobials was
plasmid mediated. The results showed mean Salmonella/Shigella count of the African salad samples ranged
from 25× 105cfu/g to 201× 105cfu/g, Staphylococcal count ranged from 39× 103 cfu/g to 215× 105cfu/g, coliform
count ranged from 27× 103 cfu/g to 215× 105 cfu/g and Listeria count ranged from 6× 103cfu/g to 113×
105cfu/g. The prevalent bacteria were Listeria sp having a 60% occurrence while Escherichia coli had a 30%
occurrence. The species of bacteria isolated were identified as Listeria sp, E. coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp,
Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella sp. All isolate were susceptible to gentamycin and ofloxacin.
Resistance was observed with erythromycin (90.0%), cloaxacilin (70.2%), augmentin (60.5%), ceftazidime
(34.7%) and cefuroxime (22.2%). Plasmid analysis showed that most of the isolates carried plasmids greater
than 10kbp and after plasmid curing the isolates were cured of its resistance to cloxacillin and ceftazidime but
some isolates still retained resistance to erythromycin (25.8%), augmentin (16.9%) and cefuroxime (19.7%).


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Acute toxicity of four heavy metals and two pesticides on a fresh water snail, Melanoides
tuberculatus (Gastropod, Thiaridae) was investigated. Adult M tuberculatus was exposed
for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of heavy metal: Arsenic (As),
Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and pesticides: Cypermethrin and Chlopyrifos.
The median lethal concentration, LC50 values for the 96-hour exposure to As, Cu, Cd and
Pb were 6.24, 8.60, 15.22 and 1082.10mg/l respectively, while the LC50 values for the 96-
hour exposures to Chlopyrifos and Cypermethrin were 2.45and 3.81ml/l respectively.
Arsenic was the most toxic heavy metal to M. tuberculatus, followed by Cu, Cd and Pb
(As>Cu>Cd>Pb).
Between the two pesticides under study, chlopyrifos was found more toxic than
cypermethrin. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentration (LC50) was
calculated. Mortality increased with the increase in mean exposure concentration and
times for all metals and pesticides. No mortality was recorded for the control as all the
values obtained were zero.
This study indicates that M tuberculatus is sensitive to heavy metals and pesticides and
therefore can be used to monitor the presence of pollutants at low concentration levels in
waterbody.


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