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There seems to be a general rendition that colonial conquered African kings (Chief) accepted their new status and therefore collaborated with the colonial regime in the governance of African conquered states. Some sampled literature on African resistance and eventual workings of colonial administration gives such impression of a docile and incapable chieftaincy that served the colonial authorities without any visible form of protest and resistance. This impression may not be correct as there are evidences to suggest that the African chieftaincy was not as submissive to colonial rule as observed in the case of king Okojie of Uromi, Nigeria who was exiled from his community by the British colonial authorities between 1919 and 1931. The circumstances of Okojie’s deportation and continued colonial policies to keep him outside Uromi created two opposing forces; the centrifugal forces, which represent colonial collaborators while the centripetal forces where those who resisted colonial policies as they concerned the deported Okojie. The research adopted a content analysis approach of colonial archival documents, oral interview and other related literature to interrogate the nature of king Okojie’s resistance to colonial rule in Uromi. The findings reveal that though, Okojie’s circumstances of birth might have influenced his harsh style of governance in the colonial created Native Authority, a fact which was used as an excuse by the British colonial authorities to depose him, however, the actual rationale for his banishment from his land of birth was because of his continued resistance to colonial rule in form of civil disobedience. The discussion raises the need for scholars to research on the nature of responses of the African chieftaincy to their colonial status, and concludes that the deportation of king Okojie should be understood from the broader perspective of the fate of African kings (chiefs) that refused to accept the reality of their tamed authority and powers with the advent of colonial rule.


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The paper examined the interlocking relationship among democracy, development and insurgency in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. It interrogated the western orthodox
conception that democracy necessarily brings about development. It made use of
literary materials in its analysis after subjecting them to textual and contextual analysis. The paper posited that since 1999, Nigeria’s ruling elites have marginalized and impoverished the vast majority of Nigerians. It contended that the failure of the ruling elite accentuated insurgency and terrorism and concluded that the prophylactic is for the Nigerian people to remain the focus and ‘raison d’ etre’ of democracy and not pursuit of ‘self’ and ‘class’ interests. 


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Abstract
The fundamental objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between company age, company size and profitability against the background of the learning by doing and structural inertia hypotheses. The study population consists of the universe of companies (202) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange Market as at December 2014. A sample of 30 firms was scientifically selected for the study. The analysis was carried out using archival data from 2006 to 2012, comprising of 210 observations. The panel data regression analysis is the technique for data analysis. The choice of the technique is premised on its property of increase data points and control for individual heterogeneity. The usual classical regression assumption tests were effected to ensure the accuracy of the regression model. The study finds a significant positive relationship between firm age, firm size and profitability. The control variable of board size reports a negative and insignificant relationship with profitability. The significant positive relationship between company age and profitability, is a confirmation of the learning by doing hypothesis. However, the positive relationship between size and profitability, negates the hypothesis of structural inertia. Against the backdrop of the research findings, we recommend that the management should strive to increase the scale of operation of businesses and by implication, the size of the business to enhance improved reputation and attractiveness.


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This study examined the powdered sample of the raw and boiled seeds of thevetia Peruviana, the seeds were analysed for proximate composition, mineral content, while the oil extracted from the seeds were evaluated for physicochemical properties using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the proximate composition (%) of the raw and boiled samples respectively are moisture (2.00 and 2.89), ash (3.33 and 2.96), crude protein (30.10 and 29.6), crude fibre (4.79 and 5.21), crude fat ( 58.3 and 59.20), carbohydrate ( 1.80 and 0.30), and energy (2524.5 and 2521.1) KJ/g. While the physiochemical properties of the extracted oil are acid value (1.71 and 1.41) mg/g, peroxide value (3.85 and 11.51) mg/g, iodine value (83.89 and 76.20) mgKOH/g, saponification value (224.26 and 193.78)mg/g, unsaponification value (2.04 and 1.59)mg/g, density (0.89 and 0.88) g/dm3, specific gravity (0.91 and 0.93), refractive index at 320C (1.46 and 1.47) and viscosity (28.21 and 30.59) pal/sec. The mineral contents of both raw and boiled samples are in the order of P > K > Na > mg > Fe > Ca > Zn > Mn. Cd, Pb, Ca and Cr were detected in raw and boiled samples except Ca that was detected in raw sample. Generally, the high protein and fat contents show that the samples can be used in food and feed formulation while the saponification values, iodine values and the presence of some valuable minerals indicate that they can be used for other industrial purpose.


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The focus of this study is to assess the democratic system and factor analysis of environment of business organizations in Nigeria. This paper examined the practice, problems and prospects of Nigerian democratic system and the relationship between democracy and environment of business organizations in Nigeria. This paper discusses the process of environmental analysis using the concept of strength, weakness, opportunities and threat (SWOT) model approaches. The methodology utilized for this study is the descriptive and content investigation with qualitative reporting. The study largely employs secondary data sourced from textbooks, journal publication, newspapers articles, internet materials and academic papers. The research reveals that Nigerian democratic system has not achieved much success in bestowing to the people their fundamental desires or even the requirement to participate in the management of the affairs of the country. This study contends that despite, the hope of a politically steady and democratically feasible country, obviously the citizens’ eagerness to take part in the electoral practice and the general awareness in the country that the only acceptable and popular route to the attainment of political power is to vote. The paper recommends that further research is done on the subject using appropriate statistical and econometric tools for the analysis of linkage between democracy and the tangential features of the environment of industrial organizations.


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This study identified the nature of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) adopted on project planning activities and examined the factors affecting the adoption of these ICT on project planning in the Food and Beverage Industry in Nigeria. The study was carried out through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule to a total of forty five (45) respondents across ICT, Production and Project departments of food and beverage firms in southwestern Nigeria. This was used to elicit information on the factors affecting the adoption of ICT in the industry. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the major ICT adopted by food and beverage firms in Nigeria were Enterprise resource planning (4.48), Product lifecycle management (4.29), Customer Relationship Management (4.19), Supply Chain Management (4.34), Management Information Systems (4.38), Portable Data Collection Hand Held (4.65), Virtual Private Networks (4.53), Internet and e-mail (4.77). All of these ICTs had a mean rank of 4.00 and above on a 5 point-likert scales.Three factors were identified to influence ICT adoption. These include Human Resource capacity (52.8%), level of ICT investment (47.2%) and ICT competency (69.4%). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that level of ICT on Investment (r = -.425**: p<0.05) and Employee Competency (r = -.634**: p<0.05) are factors which had significant influence on ICT adoption in the project planning activities of the firms. In conclusion, the study revealed that Level of ICT investment and employee ICT competency are factors that significantly influence the adoption of ICT in the selected firms. These factors were found to be critical hindrances to ICT adoption in Nigerian food and beverage industry.


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ABSTRACT

The global impetus and preference for automation of records management systems arising from propensity for greater efficiency and preservation imperatives has sustained the digitization of records from creation, retention, archival to disposal. The paper examined the admissibility of digital records  as evidence in Nigerian courts. It noted that the Nigerian Evidence Act has not been reviewed for over sixty years hence it 1slarge/} deficient m accommodating technological developments compared to its counterparts m advanced nations. The rewrite laws place highest premium on primary evidence as exemplified by original documents and regard digital records as surrogate and secondary evidence hence not admissible . The courts can only be persuaded to recognize third party authenticated versions. It is recommended inter alia that records of legal value should be notarized before digitization.


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This study examines the patterns and impacts of rice production and technological efficiency on economic growth in some selected countries. Data used for the study covered the period 1990-2015 and were all obtained from Word Bank Development Index online.  Descriptive and panel data techniques were employed in the analysis. The Panel regression results reveals that the F-statistics value for the fixed effect model exceeds (65.20) that of the Pooled OLS (58.1) at 1% level of significance, necessitating the adoption of the fixed effect model, with an adjusted Rvalue of 0.86. The empirical findings reveal that the countries exhibit differential rates of technology, necessitating some of the countries having technological efficiency values higher than the mean value of the entire sampled countries. The results further show that rice production index and technological efficiency are positive and significant to stimulating economic growth in the sampled countries. Hence, domestic production of rice induces positive spill-overs on income, employment and poverty reduction.   We recommend rice production enhancement policies as well is increased technological know-how should be encouraged in order to enhance economic growth in these countries


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Promoting the growth and development of the Nigeria economy can be influenced by trends of gross fixed domestic investment or indirectly through policies aimed at stimulating the flow of foreign direct investment into the country. This study analyzed the impact of foreign direct investment on Nigeria economic growth from the period of 1990 - 2013. Data used in this study is secondary; sourced from various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, such as; Statistical Bulletin, Annual Reports and Statement of Accounts. The regression analysis of the error correction model is the estimation technique employed in this study to determine the relationship between Direct Foreign Investment on economic growth. The findings showed that the ECM is significant and correctly signed. Foreign direct investment has significant relationship with economic growth. The paper recommended that government should create macroeconomic policies that would attract and retain FDI in the country.  Also, financial markets and institutions should be strengthened and effectively regulated.


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Abstract

Libraries and information centres are defined by their collections, services and audiences. Academic libraries exist to support their parent institutions in teaching, research, study and community services. The justification for rigorous and complex organization of library materials is the satisfaction of the users. Despite past efforts at achieving this, recent studies indicate users' dissatisfaction. This paper examined past efforts at meeting users' needs, identified existing complaints and suggested strategies for intervention such as full computerization, closed access shelves, internet connectivity, electronic cataloguing, and pragmatic user education among others. It also recommended linkages and collaboration with multinational corporations as an option of generating extra fund and endowments to augment their statutory subventions. A ranking system by Nigerian Library Association and National Library of Nigeria based on academic libraries' automation and collection status was also recommended.


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In recent times, research done on Carica papaya seeds has shown its nutritive and medicinal benefits without resort to possible side effect. However, studies have shown that the consumption of C. papaya seeds causes vascular contraction, infertility in female rats, reduced sperm counts, sperm cell degeneration and abortifacient properties. This study was designed to determine the enzyme assay level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum of wistar rats fed with modified diet of C. papaya milled seeds to ascertain possible hepatic or myocardia defect. A total of 15 wistar rats were divided into two groups comprising of test (8) and control (7) respectively. The test group were fed with modified diet of edible black C. papaya seeds and the control group with grower’s marsh feed for a period of 9 weeks. The determination of aspartate aminotransferase activity showed the Mean ± SEM of aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum of the test group as 0.38±0.03 and the control group 0.19±0.10 respectively. Subsequently, alanine aminotransferase activity from the obtained test and control groups showed the Mean ± SEM of alanine aminotransferase activity in the serum as 0.86±0.02 and 1.25±0.03 respectively. Furthermore, there is a significant (P<0.05) difference between the control and test group based on the level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activity in the serum. In summary, transaminases are usually used in the diagnosis of liver damage and myocardia infarction. Therefore, the increase level of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in the serum of Wistar Strain albino rats may suggest possible damage of hepatocyte cardiac muscles associated with the consumption of diet modified fed with C. papaya seeds.


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Nigerian pre colonial historiography mainly addresses the evolution of states with emphasis on what Obayemi refers to as mega states. The pre colonial kingdom of Benin is regarded in Obayemi’s reckoning as a mega state out of which, other mini states emerged and one of such mini states is the Uromi community in the Esan region of Edo state (Obayemi 202). This present discourse observed that commentators hinged their commentaries on the pre colonial Benin’s extensive territorial coverage within the Benin axis to assume that a monolithic political structure existed, dating back to centuries. Relying on the interpretative historical approach to analyse available accounts and documents, this paper attempts to demonstrate that the Uromi community had developed a complex political structure before the imposition of Benin style monarchical system around the 15th century. The paper concludes that a holistic approach to the study of state creation in the Nigerian geographical space may unearth information that may contribute to understanding the various degrees of inter-group relations among the Nigerian people.


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The ancient town of Sagamu in the old Ijebu-Remo Province is a household name regarding the cultivation and production of kolanutscola nitida (gbanja), especially the white variety, in the whole of South-Western Nigeria. This species of kolanuts attracted some itinerant Hausa kolanuts merchants in large number from the north to the town between 1910 and 1970. This paper examines the impact of kolanuts trade on the socio-economic development of Sagamu. It sheds light on the origins of gbanja kola; types of the nuts involved in commercial transactions; and the volume of the trade in Sagamu. In the course of this study, primary and secondary sources, which have been critically assessed and evaluated were used without necessarily undermining the historicity of the subject-matter. The paper concluded with the lessons to be drawn from the trade by contemporary Sagamu society and Nigeria in general.


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Lack of adequate health data monitoring system has led to the death of many patients in hospitals across the
country. The inadequacy of this system poses a serious problem in the health sector. Doctors and other
healthcare professionals find it difficult to transmit ascertained health issues of many patients particularly in
emergency situations. To improve the situation, there is need to develop information system to enhance the
performance of our healthcare professionals to deliver quality healthcare services. In this paper, we present a
conceptual model for developing an integrated health data monitoring system using Unified Modelling
Language (UML). When fully implemented, the model can be used to monitor citizens’ health issues in
Nigeria.


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The biodegradation potentials of microorganisms isolated from different sampling points of Eleme petrochemical industrial effluent were analyzed. Eleme Petrochemical effluents take various forms which include; processed wastewater (raw effluent); clarified water (waste water undergoing treatment); retention pond gate (treated waste water) and receiving river. Biodegradation potentials of microorganisms isolated from the effluents were determined by shake flask degradation and screening test. The physicochemical analysis revealed that effluents from Eleme Petrochemical Company Limited generally contained low concentrations of physicochemical pollutants except for total suspended solids (78.48 ± 0.01mg/l) and oil and grease (25.80 ± 0.02mg/l) contents which were higher than FEPA recommended limits. The isolated microorganisms identified to the genus level included Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Serratia, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Vibrio, Proteus, Achromobacter, Citrobacter, Flavobacterium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Monilia and Trichoderma. Pseudomonas had the highest frequency of occurrence (10.33%) among bacteria while Aspergillus had the highest frequency of occurrence (19.58%) among fungi. Microbiological enumeration revealed that process waste water had the highest counts for total heterotrophic bacterial (THBC) (9.0×103cfu/ml) and total fungal counts (TFC) (5.0×103cfu/ml) while retention pond gate contained the highest counts for total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (THUB) (5.7×103cfu/ml). Pseudomonas, Serratia, Bacillus, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium were the most dominant microorganisms capable of utilizing petrochemical industrial effluent. The consortium of microorganisms demonstrated the highest efficacy to utilize petrochemical industrial effluent. Biodegradation of petrochemical industrial effluents by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of physicochemical parameters such as BOD (consortium of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp., 96%) and COD (consortium of Aspergillus and Penicillium, 89%).


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Agricultural wastes such as sugarcane bagasses, maize cob, palm kernel cake, palm oil empty fruit bunches, banana pseudo stem and orange mesocarp have been known to be potential sources of cellulose. From these cellulose sources sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), a water soluble cellulose derivative and an essential raw material in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and detergent industries could be synthesized. Importantly, orange mesocarp generated from orange peel is an abundant agricultural by-product which consists of about 62.5% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative secondary resources for cellulose. In this work, cellulose was extracted from orange mesocarp and then converted to NaCMC. The orange mesocarp was dried and ground to pass 20 mesh screen. Cellulose was extracted using 8% NaOH at 100PoPC for 3.5 hrs and bleached using 3.85% NaOCl at 30PoPC for 3 hrs. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was consequently synthesized from the extracted cellulose by alkalization followed by etherification. The physicochemical properties of the NaCMC were determined in terms of the degree of substitution, viscosity and with the use of FTIR spectroscopy. The NaCMC resulted from this work has a viscosity of 14.0cP at 29.8oC and DS 1.02 and therefore was categorized as technical grade with medium viscosity. After optimization and scaling up of the production process the NaCMC synthesized will be a useful and cheap raw material for the industries.


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This study examines the influence of Goodluck Jonathan and Muhammadu Buhari’s billboard campaigns on voters’ behavior in Anambra state. The study sought to ascertain if the electorates voting decision were influenced by their exposure to billboard adverts on Jonathan and Buhari, to find out which of the billboards message content the respondents recall more than the other, to determine which of the billboards the respondents prefer; as well as to ascertain the electorates’ level of exposure to the billboard used in the 2015 presidential elections by Jonathan and Buhari and to determine whether there is a significant relationship between exposure to preferred billboard adverts and respondents’ choice of candidate in the election. To achieve this, the study used the survey method with the questionnaire as research instrument. Through multi-stage and purposive sampling, 384 respondents were selected from three senatorial zones in Anambra state and administered the questionnaire. The findings indicated among other things, that voters in Anambra were significantly influenced by their exposure to these billboards and most of them recalled the message contents of Jonathan more than that of Buhari. The study found out that electorates in Anambra state prefer Jonathan’s campaign billboard to that of Buhari and there is no significant relationship between exposure to preferred billboard advert and choice of candidate. In the light of the findings, it was recommended that voters should not rely on billboard advert as it only source of information about contestants. They should explore other sources such as radio, television and social media. The study also recommended that a lot should be done to maximize the potentials of billboard campaign for favourable voting decision.

 

Keywords: Influence, Voter, Billboard, Preference and Political advertising.


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The ability to respond intelligently to situations is a function of the quality and relevance of education acquired. The African continent is considered as underdeveloped in the international system because of its low level of socio-political and economic development. Why is the continent having this nature of challenges? Various factors may be accountable; however, there is the contention that the nature of colonial education and religion represent one of the gravest uncomplimentary variables to functional education in Africa. Using comparative historical analysis between pre colonial and colonial practices, the paper argues and supports the view that colonialism distorted the African pre colonial educational and religious system. The paper concludes that the African continent may continue to remain in this backward position of underdevelopment until there is an intelligent blend between indigenous and western values in order to re-create a functional system relevant to the African communities. 


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Abstract

The world is now more than ever endangered by the prevalence of medical errors262. Available data suggest that over 2.7 million people die annually around the globe of causes traceable to medical errors. The case appears to be worse in developing countries like Nigeria where confirmed reports revealed that 7 out of every 10 deaths in medical facilities have their roots in medical errors. While it is heart-breaking to come to terms with these ugly statistics, it is even worse to realize that these errors are not communicated to the unsuspecting victims. This is despite the fact that ethical and professional guidelines recommend disclosure of such errors to patients when they occur. Public outcry over these concealment, cover-up, and turning a blind eye to transparency, acknowledgment, and prevention has reached its stretch as it is believed in medicine that some of the errors are even correctable if communicated on time. To this end, the critical questions are; why are these errors not communicated despite the overwhelming trust patients have on their medical officers? What is the Nigerian Medical Association (NMA) doing to ensure that patients who are harmed are informed of what went wrong and why, accompanied by sincere expressions of empathy and regret? The above question, among others, formed the bedrock of this study. 262 This is an umbrella term for all errors including mishandled surgery, diagnostic errors, equipment failures, and medication errors. In conducting this study, the researchers used qualitative research design to generate qualitative data through Key Informant interview and Focus Group Discussions. With this design, the views of direct and indirect victims of medical errors in South-Easterner Nigeria, medical practitioners, Nigerian Medical Association and legal experts were sought. After a thorough analysis, findings revealed that medical errors are prevalent in Nigeria and that they are rarely communicated to the victims or their relations. Again, it was found that patients in Nigeria no longer have confidence in their health officers, and the NMA is yet to speed up efforts to stem the ugly tide of medical errors. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend that health officers should take practical steps to avoid medical errors and in the event of any, it should be communicated after taking into account the psychology of the victim. Again, the NMA should as a matter of urgency look into this worrisome development with a view to stemming the tide. Legal experts and the media should equally learn to challenge vigorously cases of medical errors through legal battles and investigative journalism.

 


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History plays a critical role in the political and socio-economic development of any country. In this connection, proper methods of teaching the subject constitute a crucial development discourse that cannot be overemphasized. Regrettably, the fortunes of History as a discipline nose-dived since the last two decades of the twentieth century to the opening decade of the twenty-first century because of the perceived conception of the sciences as the more crucial tools for national development. This paper examines the challenges of resuscitating interest in History in the twenty-first century and the role that new methods would play in reawakening such interest in the discipline. The paper adopted the historical method of collection and interpretation of data. The secondary data on which this work relied would be subjected to textual and contextual analysis. The discussion is in five parts. The first section introduces the work while the second section examines the gains of History in sharpening the intellectual skills of students. The third part discusses the dilemma of the Nigeria state and the neglect of History, while the fourth part examines the methods of teaching the discipline in Nigerian schools. The concluding section of this work draws attention to the need to adopt new methods of teaching the subject so as to make it relevant in proffering solution to Nigeria’s leadership and developmental challenges.


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It is universally acknowledged that death is inevitable. This explains why people who loss their beloved ones organize elaborate burial rites for the deceased in order not to render them as outcast in the land of the ‘Spirit’. This study investigated traditional burial rites among the Ughievwen, a subset of the Urhobo people of Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how traditional values united African Societies until the introduction of Christainity and its values. The study adopted the historical method of investigation. It relied on existing oral traditions of the people and few available literatures to attempt an analysis of traditional burial rites in Ughievwen land considering the difficulty of getting reliable data for the period covered by the study. It was found that adherence to Christian doctrines appears not to have prevented people from inheriting properties left by
deceased persons, yet, Christian adherents saw the indigenous rites as fetish. The study concludes that burial rites do not connote fetishness; rather, they are part of the culture which need to be sustained, so that the people’s culture does not go into extinction.


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The nephrotoxic effects of Strophantus hispidus stem bark (aqueous and ethanol) in normal rats were assessed. Male rats (Wistar strain) numbering 45 were randomly selected into nine groups of five rats each. Four groups were given 100, 200, 500 and 800 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract, while another four groups received similar doses of ethanol extract. One group served as untreated normal control. After 28 days of daily administration of the extracts and water, animals were sacrificed. Urea, creatinine and some electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- & HCO3-) were assessed. Both extracts produced significant increases (p<0.05) in urea concentration at 800 mg/kg when compared with the control group. At the same dose, significant increase (p<0.05) were observed in creatinine concentration for the aqueous and ethanol extracts treated groups while the ethanol extract treated groups at 500 mg/kg body weight also showed significant increases (p<0.05) in creatinine. Similarly, K+ significantly increased at 800 mg/kg body weight for both extracts while Na+ produced a significant increase at the same dose for the aqueous extract treated groups. However, a significant increase in Na+ was observed in the ethanol treated groups at the doses of 500 and 800 mg/kg. Interestingly, no significant effects (p>0.05) were observed in the levels of Cl- and HCO3- at all the doses of aqueous extract administered. The ethanol extract treated groups however showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in Cl- content and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HCO3- content at the highest dose administered when compared with the control. The findings from this study suggest that higher doses of S. hispidus are inimical to kidney function. It also indicates that the extract may be deleterious to the nephrons than aqueous extract.


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Abstract
Transformation has been likened to growth and uplift-ment. Transformation is also a long term plan for stimulating economic and community growth in a society onto a path of sustained and rapid development. Sustained development in a community is a call for all individual in the community to stand firmly on the path of sustainable growth, designed to reflect accurately the collective interests of the people of the community. The infrastructural development of any community is anchored on the determination of the people to mobilize and call on relevant agencies to improve the lives of its people, through the provision of social amenities and to respond appropriately to the growing challenges of an increasingly smaller, mutually dependent, and interconnected society. This paper seeks to promote infrastructural developmental effort within the context of the objective set out for a proper community transformation and its imperative for community participation in the provision of social amenities. The paper looked at the transformation of any community from the bottom-up approach. The paper submits that without adequate response from governmental agencies, transformation of any community would be a mirage.


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Nomads constitute about 6 per cent of the African population and are found in at least 20 different countries across the continent. In Nigeria, the nomads who constitute about 6.6 per cent (9.3 million) of the country’s population were, before the establishment of National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989, excluded from all formal educational arrangements. The establishment of this Commission saw the introduction of a special educational system to take care of the once educationally deprived nomads in accessing some level of schooling since they could not fit into the conventional school system. Many strategies were consequently developed to this effect. The Radio Distance Learning (RDL) strategy designed in 1996 is one of such strategies which the Commission claimed got better in 2010. But the effectiveness of this seemingly- improved strategy in raising the literacy level of these nomads who are always on transit has been called to question by some dissenting communication scholars and professional tutors. This study, therefore, evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy in growing the knowledge level of these nomads in line with the core mandates of the Commission. In executing this study, the researcher used explanatory mixed design which combined survey and ethnography research methods. Australian National Statistical Service (NSS) Online Calculator was used to draw a manageable sample size from the population of this study which comprised all nomadic RDL students and teachers/facilitators in North-Western Nigeria (1262). The three measuring instruments- questionnaire, interview and observation were used to generate both quantitative and qualitative data. The five research questions and two hypotheses used in the study gave the study a direction. Findings revealed that 77.24 per cent of the nomadic pastoralists in North-Western Nigeria were frequently exposed to the improved radio distance learning programme. It was equally found that the timing of the radio programme, Don Makiyaya a Ruga, was appropriate, but the strategy did not have an effective feedback technique. The study also revealed that the culture of the nomads did not influence their participation in the scheme and as such, the knowledge level of 83.97 per cent of the nomadic RDL students has increased because of their participation in the programme. Based on these findings, it was recommended that more professional hands should be engaged so as to make the scheme more effective, viable and result-oriented, while government at all levels were urged to increase funding to NCNE through grants and subventions.


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The Nigerian state celebrated its official fiftieth birthday on October 1, 2010. The drums were rolled out for the celebration, but we must pause to ask ourselves, what and why did Nigerian state celebrate? Is it in fulfillment of self rule which began in 1960 or jubilation in terms of national development? The paper is a discussion on the nature of Nigerian politics as it affects the emergence of credible political leadership in the post-colonial era. The paper argued that the dangerous and unproductive temperament of post-colonial Nigerian politics since 1960 has made it possible for weak and primitive accumulative class of leadership to impose itself on the Nigerian state for the past fifty years, thus leading to national underdevelopment in almost all facets. The recently conducted 2011 general elections in Nigeria, though adjudged as one of the best ever conducted in the country, also displayed some variables that have come to historically define electioneering in the country. The paper therefore concluded that for Nigerians to get it right and elect credible political leaders, the various institutions responsible for the sustenance of democracy such as the electoral body, judicial system and security forces should be empowered to perform their duties without any form of government interferences.


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