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This paper analysed the lexical features used by online commenters on the alleged national assembly fuel subsidy bribery scandal. The study employed both primary and secondary sources. The primary source included 120 purposively selected readers’ comments. The secondary source included books, journal, articles and the Internet. The results showed that lexical set, antonyms, lexical repetitions, Nigerian English compounds, name calling, collocations and lexical borrowings were the notable lexical features used by the commenters.


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The Nigerian civil war of 1967-1970 ended with the then military government of Gen. Gowon maintaining the “No Victor, No Vanquished” posture. This was despite the fact that the defunct Biafra, as it were, clearly lost out with millions of casualties, mostly women and children. This posture, with all its criticisms from those who insisted that Biafrans should be treated as prisoners of war, was maintained by the then Head of State who believed it was a reconciliatory take off point. Ever since, several policies, and programmes have been put in place to reduce the hostility between the then Biafrans (now mainly South- Easterners and a few South-
Southerners) and the rest of the country. At the point when available evidence was suggesting that the hostility was reducing, late Prof. Chinua Achebe published a controversial book, “There was a Country: A Personal History of Biafra,” in 2012. This book, with a detailed account of the war, analysts argue, has reengineered  hostility, “thereby bringing to naught all reconciliatory moves made in the last forty-two years.” Considering Achebe’s intellectual capacity, world status and what he represented, especially to the Igbo nation, one is tempted to agree with these analysts. However, such conclusion could be hasty without empirical proof. Therefore, the obvious questions are: has the book in any way influenced Nigerians to construct or reconstruct their memories of the war? Is it leading to fresh hostility, considering the fact that he accused prominent Nigerians of genocide? Qualitative and quantitative data generated through interview, questionnaire and focus group discussion revealed that the book has influenced Nigerians to construct and reconstruct negative memories of the war.


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Women entrepreneurs have become a topical issue due to their influence in global economies and business today, their impact has been felt in most developing countries including Nigeria. Despite these contributions women entrepreneurs still suffer a lot of set back and constraints in exploiting their potentials unlike their male counterparts. There are wide ranges of factors limiting the progress of women entrepreneurs. The objective of this study is to examine the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs that inhibit full utilization of their creativity in Igueben Local government of Edo State, Nigeria. Primary data was used for this study which was generated through structured questionnaires and direct interview from entrepreneurs within Igueben Local Government. ANOVA was employed to test the research hypothesis. Recommendations were made on how to strengthen women entrepreneurs in the Local government and Nigeria at large.


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The paper opines that the underdevelopment of the communities of Contemporary Africa is due mainly to the crisis of governance and poor leadership. Drawing from the case of Ughievwen Social and Political institutions in the pre-colonial times using the methodology of counterfactual approach, the paper explains the importance of history in charting a new direction for the continent. The discussion is six parts. The first section introduces the discussion by showing the gap between the potentials and the in-roads of the continent since the end of colonialism. The second part examines briefly the geographical and historical background of Ughievwen while the third section examines pre-colonial Ughievwen social and political institutions up to the first half of the twentieth century to show the insights that could be drawn from it with regards to policy-making. The fourth section examines the evolution from kinship to kingship political system in Ughievwen land to demonstrate the
internal dynamics of pre-colonial socities. The fifth part discusses aspects of the colonial policies of the British and how it influenced the course of Africa’s history. The concluding section of this paper challenges African historians to re-focus their attention on how to make history relevant in proffering solutions to African developmental challenges.


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As with other parts of Africa, British colonial administration stifled the indigenous
technological instincts of Nigerian peoples. Before the introduction of colonization to Africa, the people had their own ways of providing for their needs. The advent of colonialism disrupted this ingenuity. The colonial economy of most African states was structured to improve the economies of the colonizers. It is against this background that this paper seeks to show how the introduction of foreign drinks (spirits) dampened the indigenous technological instincts of the Ughievwen people and consequently led to the decline of indigenous gin production which came to be regarded as “illicit”. The paper concludes that because of the influence and exploitative interests of colonial administrative officers who were out to advance the development of their employer’s economy, indigenous technological instincts of the Ughievwen people nose-dived. Colonialism thus impacted in major ways on the lives of those whose lands were colonized. This may affect people’s lives, even in the near future.


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This study investigates how selected Nigerian newspapers reported the Chibok school girls’ abduction in Government Secondary School, Chibok Borno State on April 14 2014. The research focuses on how the abduction is framed in the news stories of two Southern and Northern Nigerian based newspapers (The Guardian, The Sun, The Trust and Leadership Newspapers) and how such frames influenced the audience. In conducting this study, two research methods- content analysis and survey methods, were used to generate quantitative data for analysis. Content analytical method was used to study seven news frames as used in the selected dailies while survey was used to establish the influence such frames have on the news audience. After a thorough analysis, it was found that the selected papers used rescue efforts frame, hopelessness frame, political frame, religious frame, ethnic frame, conspiracy frame and
economic frame. It was equally found that hopelessness frame was used more in news report more than others. Finally, it was established that mass media audience believed that the way the abduction was framed in the media has made them to think less of any rescue put by the government.


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The Nigerian press has always been accused of manipulating political crisis to the gains of their owners or the opposition. This accusation was repeated during the long 78 days (November 23 2009 – February 9 2010) that Nigerian late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua was incapacitated due to ill-health. In fact, observers believed that the kind of media war, power play and intrigue that hailed the period almost cost Nigeria her hard-earned unity and democracy. Eventually, Yar’Adua and his handlers irrefragably lost to ill-health and public opinion. However, the late President’s ‘kitchen cabinet’ believed that he lost ultimately to public opinion manipulated by the press. How true was this? How far can we agree with the kitchen cabinet bearing in mind that this type of accusation came up during the scandals of President Nixon of the United States and the ill health of late President John Attah-Mills of Ghana. Based on these complexities, the researchers embarked on this study to investigate the kind of coverage newspapers in Nigeria gave the power vacuum crisis during Yar’ Adua’s tenure in order to establish whether they (newspapers), indeed, manipulated events during those long 78 days. In carrying out this study, four national dailies (The Guardian, The Sun, New Nigerian and Daily Trust Newspapers), were used. Using five units of analysis (news, features, editorials, cartoons and opinion articles) and seven content categories, findings revealed that Nigerian newspapers gave the presidential power vacuum crisis prominence. The results also showed that the issue was adequately covered and took a positive direction. However, it was, also, discovered that Nigerian newspapers frequently covered the power lacuna in their reports which were influenced by regional and ownership factors. Based on these, it was recommended that ownership and regional affiliations should not impact on media reports. And that the media should provide leadership in times of national conflict by setting and consolidating agenda.


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This study examines the influence of child spacing campaigns on the knowledge, attitude and practices of South- East rural women. Using behavioural change theory as the framework, the study adopted survey method as its research design. A total of 384 respondents drawn from the South-East responded to the copies of the questionnaire designed from six research questions raised in the study. After a thorough analysis, it was found that while the mass media campaigns on child spacing have created serious awareness about child spacing in South-East rural communities, the practice is still very low. Some of the problems found to be associated with this low practice include lack of adequate community health facilitators, lack of information on improved child
spacing techniques, urban oriented messages, lack of integration of the rural people in messages/communication meant for their consumption, etc. Based on these findings, it was recommended that, health workers, media researchers, communicators, social workers, guidance counselors and those in the helping profession should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence birth spacing practices among couples with the view to correcting them for an informed and healthy society.


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It is unarguably a fact that in the sociology of natural disasters, the mass media are expected to be serious management tools used to influence people’s preparedness and response. These were the roles Nigerian media were expected to play during the 2012 flood disaster. This study, therefore, looks at the perception of South-Easterners about the role the media played before, during and after the 2012 natural disaster that affected 25 per cent of Nigerians in 28 states. In conducting this study, the researchers used explanatory mixed method design to generate both quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaire and interview. Taro Yamani statistical formula was used to draw a sample of 400 from a population of 16,395,555. A thorough analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data generated in the 12 communities selected for the study revealed that 75 per cent of South-Easterners believed that the media did not play a significant role in creating awareness before the flood. The study equally revealed that 76.30 per cent of them argued that the media did not mobilize Nigerians against the flood and nothing was done by the media to manage the incident. Findings also revealed that the media failed to prepare Nigerians to manage the aftermath of the disaster.
 

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This study examined the impact of capital market operations on the Nigeria’s economic growth between 1981 and 2014. The prevailing challenges in the World financial markets; especially the capital market, justifies the various forms of reforms going on around the world, Nigeria inclusive. Some capital market variables such as market capitalization, volume of transactions and number of deals served as independent variables while real Gross Domestic Product represented the dependent variable. Secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical bulletin, were utilized in the study. The study adopted the OLS long run estimation and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) as the method of analysis and it was built on Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test and residual based co-integration test. E-views 8
package of the econometrics was used to estimate the data. The results showed that capital market operations positively impacted the growth of the Nigerian economy for the period covered by the study. The study recommends among others that government should periodically
and objectively evaluate activities and reform agenda of the capital market in a manner that will enhance economic growth and development.


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The focus of this paper is on managerial approach to conflict management in an organization.
The objectives of this study is to ascertain what constitute conflict, sources of conflict, views
of conflict, consequences of conflict in an organization and the strategies for dealing with
organizational conflict etc. To effectively examine how conflict management will improve
organizational performance, the study relies mainly on secondary data from textbook,
internet, journals etc. The study reveals that conflict is endemic in human life’s and cannot not
totally be eradicated rather its effect can be minimized so as to ensure that it does not hinder
the activities of the organization by way of reducing performance. The paper recommends
amongst others that managers at all levels should acquaint themselves with potential causes of
conflict in their organization and address them early enough to forestall activities that will
hamper the smooth running of the organization.


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At present, the exercise of professional judgement is left with individual accountants in enterprises. Since there are no rules or guidelines governing the exercise of such judgement, it then means that there will be as many outcomes as the number of enterorises and the accountants exercising the judgement. this should be expected as characteristics and personalities of the enterprises and accountants differ a lot. Qualities like skill acquisitions, training, past experiences and morality vary from individual to individual and so their influence on exercise of professional judgement.


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This study examined the factors influencing transition from organizational employment to self-employment among high school teachers in Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents who were randomly selected. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists was used to analyze the data. The study revealed the significance of parent’s involvement in business and entrepreneurial training in the development of entrepreneurial intention among respondents. Data analyses revealed associations between father’s involvement in business and the propensity of offspring to engage in self-employment. The study concluded that the influence that parents’ involvement in business will have on offspring’s entrepreneurial intention should be a motivating factor to policy makers to formulate policies that will provide enabling environment for such businesses. Also, entrepreneurial training should be intensified for the youths to foster the development of entrepreneurship in the country.  


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This paper examines the issue of corruption in Nigeria and the wars that have been waged on it since independence. It was observed that all the wars aimed at combating corruption so far are punishmentfocused. Even at that, there is inconsistency in the award and execution of the. punishments. Seized properties front people accused of corrupt practices are later returned to owners. The paper recommends a system approach to executing the war against corruption. Such a system should comprise change, monitoring and investigating agencies. Punishment or rewards for oflenders and honest citizens respectively, must be one way of discouraging corrupt practices in the country.


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ABSTRACT
This paper presents the findings from an investigation into the question whether a social network is a blessing or a curse. We used a sample population of 320 students at Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi in Edo Sate Nigeria as our case study. This investigation was borne out of the ever-increasing interest that a lot of people are expressing in their fraternity with the various social networks and the obvious opportunities and prospects as well as the virtues and vices these social networks portend. Social networks are like legal tenders; on their own, they are neither good nor bad. What defines them and gives them their characteristics are what a user does with them. A lot of unsavory activities (ranging from fraud, identity theft to outright blackmail) have been known to be carried out using social networks as a platform but in retrospect, varying degrees of positive achievements (such as building of mutually beneficial relationships and ties, reestablishment of lost contacts and effective communication) has also been recorded using social networks. From the investigation that we carried out, it was observe that social network can serve as a blessing and it can also serve as a curse depending on how and what a user use it for.


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Whenever Africa is mentioned in the international arena, the name seems to conjure pity, poverty, diseases, corruption, conflicts, maladministration, abuse of human rights and other trappings of vices associated with underdevelopment. This thinking may have influenced Tony Blair’s (former British Prime Minister) comments that Africa is a “scar on the conscience of the world”. This paper therefore argues that the various degrees of developmental challenges confronting contemporary African states were created in the era of colonial administration of the continent. Using the concepts of fundamentalist structuralism to critically analyse the contemporary African developmental challenges, the paper concludes that Africa appears to lack the capacity to deconstruct the philosophical foundation on which colonial structures were erected, and without a radical overture, the African continent may remain in its crawling developmental posture even in the 21st century.


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ABSTRACT
There is a growing consensus that terrorism/terrorist activities have taken root in the northern part of Nigeria. The incessant bombings, maiming and sporadic killings of innocent lives, perpetrated by a religious sect Boko Haram–(which means western education is evil) has put the security agencies in a precarious situation. Religious differences in the world have often been used for ―stereotyping and demolishing opponents,‖ which has provided a ―legitimate framework for violence that would otherwise be considered unacceptable‖. Recent occurrence in northern Nigeria clearly shows that the state of insecurity in the north has assumed a frightening dimension, as the ideology of the Muslim fanatics is set to Islamize the north. This paper seeks to evaluate the challenges faced by Nigeria internal security agencies against the sect and the continued hostility against Christians in the north. The question often asked is ―is holy war or Jihad imminent in Nigeria‖? A brief historical trajectory in a tabulated form was cited as a way of narrating and describing the situation. While it may be posited that insecurity is a global problem, what looks rather strange in the Nigeria situation is the seeming inability of the government to tackle the challenges head-long. The paper submits that there is an ample need to reposition internal security in Nigeria and Africa in general, taking into cognizance the need for effective policing of the nations‘ borders. It also advocated for administrative policies; with regards to Nigerian immigration laws, to curb illegal entry.


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Health and safety management is about commitment to and providing conducive
working environment to employees. Human resources department plays a
prominent role in ensuring employee’s health and safety as they discharge their
duties in the workplace. This study examines the importance of health and safety
in workplace, safety and health hazard, stress and its causes, consequences of
stress at workplace, strategies for making the workplace safer, risk assessment,
managing health and safety among others. The objective of this study is to ascertain
the essence of health and safety in the work environment. It is a truism that a
healthy man is a wealthy man and for an organisation to achieve its goals its
workforce must be fit physically and mentally to carry out their tasks. The study
observes that the health of the workforce is an immense valuable asset to the
organization and should not only be preserved but should be fostered. The
findings of this research reveal that for organisations to be productive and
profitable, adequate attention must be given to the wellbeing of the work force.
Hence, it is recommended among many others that management should carryout
periodic written safety inspections of the workplace, including follow-up entries
explaining what was done to mitigate all deficiencies.


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Abstract: This paper examines the approaches of Nigerian enterprises to triple bottom line reporting with a view to
assessing the adequacy of such practices, particularly the reporting on the elements of people and planet vis-à-vis
reporting on profits. The secondary data source was used to obtain data for the study about the practices. The major
findings of the study: are reporting on the bottom line of people is very poor, only based on quantitative numbers of
volume which are not monetized as is done for profit; and reporting on the bottom line of the planet is even worse, it is
mostly based on mere descriptive narration of policies and practices. It is therefore recommended that: government
should legislate on triple bottom line reporting; and accounting standard(s) be developed to help guide the enterprises on
triple bottom line reporting.


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An early warning system examining the capital adequacy of Nigerian banks was undertaken. For this purpose, a simple capital-asset ratio of 5.5% was used to pre- classify the banks into capital adequate and capital inadequate banks. Some 33 variables drawn from financial and economic data were gathered for this study. As a first step, univariate test was done on the variables to remove the variables that were not observable. The remaining ones were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to select the variables (eight in number) for the logistic regression. The logistic analysis revealed seven variables that can correctly classify the banks into capital adequate and capital inadequate banks 100% in sample. Applying the same variables to subsequent year data, they were reduced to five and the variables were able to classify the banks into capital adequate and capital inadequate banks 100%. This means that that the derived variables can correctly classify banks into capital adequate and capital inadequate banks one year ahead of the time when capital inadequacysets in.

 


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A kinetic evaluation of the fermentation of soursop (Substrate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast enzyme) was conducted by determining the effect of various parameters (such as Temperature, substrate, pH, and Yeast concentration) on the rate of production of CO2. The results showed that the rate of fermentation increased in proportion with Temperature (optimum 32-36oC), Substrate (optimum 50%v/v), pH (optimum 5.0) and Yeast concentration (optimum 3.5-4.5%w/v) up to a point and decreased. The kinetic parameters evaluated are maximum rate of reaction Vmax (1.79x102MS-1); catalytic constant, k2 (8.0x10-2 dm3 mol-1S-1); overall rate constant, k (1.79x102); order of initial reaction (first order); dissociation constant of enzyme-substrate complex, ks (1.64x102); Michaelis constant, km (1.64x102M); and the specific activity of enzyme on substrate concentration (1x10-1%w/v).


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The passage of the Freedom of Information bill into law brought to an end the most exciting legislative odyssey in post colonial Nigeria. After more than a decade, the long awaited FOI bill that was meant to guarantee freedom of the press and access to information was finally passed into law as an Act of the National Assembly. This 32 sections Act, according to the initiators is meant to increase access to public information which were formerly concealed under the Official Secret Act, and tagged 'Classified Documents'. However, as beautiful and well intentioned as this Act might appear, some observers believe it is a serious threat to the nation's internal and external security. Section 11(2) of the Act specifically says that when the demand for any information, including security information, is in public interest, irrespective of the injury it might cause, such must be disclosed. In fact, section 27(1) says that anything contained in the Criminal Code, Penal Code, and the Official Secrets Act shall be made public irrespective of the injury it might cause. With this, legal and security experts fear that this may open windows for serious insecurity, especially in the face of the Boko Haram terrorism. However, others have argued that the provisions of the Act regarding the disclosure of security information are in order, considering the fact that many have hidden under the Official Secret Act to perpetrate a lot of evil in the name of national security. To this end, the researchers sought the opinions of security and legal experts in South-East Nigeria on the provisions of the Act vis a vis their alleged threat to the nation's security. Using both Survey and Focus Group Discussions, findings revealed that the Act does not in any way threaten national security if properly applied.


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The rate of cane sugar fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied at temperatures between 30˚C
and 42˚C in order to characterize the process using thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH*), activation
energy (ΔE*), entropy (ΔS*), Gibbs free energy (ΔG*) and equilibrium constant (K). The parameters were
evaluated on the basis of a consideration of Arrhenius, Eyring and Van’t Hoff’s equations. The results obtained
are ΔH*, 91.85 KJ∙mol−1; ΔE*, 91.85 KJ∙mol−1, ΔS*, 2763 J∙mol−1K−1; ΔG*, -762.09 KJ∙mol−1, and equilibrium
constant, K, 1.34 dm3∙mol−1. These values were subsequently used to obtain by calculation the rate constant of
the fermentation k, 1.43 × 1011 min−1, Arrhenius constant A (pre-exponential or frequency factor), 4.79 × 1026
min−1, orientation parameter, P, 4.48 × 1015 and the collision frequency Z, 1.07 × 1011 min−1. Finally the fermentation
efficiency calculated on the basis of a complete combustion of glucose is 377.8%. The results showed that
though the fermentation process is kinetically controlled, it is suggested that the positive impact of the feasible
thermodynamics is limited by other process variables.



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This paper attempts to showcase the evolution and concept of traditional banking system in Esanland.  It  will also examine the advantages, disadvantages and contributions of the traditional and modern banking systems in Esanland to the micro-economic development of Esaanland in particular and the nation in general.  Even though the introduction of technology such as Automated Teller Machines (ATM), debit and credit cards, etc. has contributed in no small measure to the effectiveness and efficiency of the modern banking system, one should not consider the traditional banking system as useless.  The impact and contributions of both systems to national economic development will  be considered


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