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The activities of digestive enzymes in the gut
regions of African giant land snail, Archachatina
marginata were investigated during aestivation
induced in the laboratory by the withdrawal of
water and food for three weeks. All studied
enzymes, amylase, α-glucosidase, cellulase, lipase,
and protease, were detected on the gut regions
(oesophagus, crop, stomach and intestine).
Aestivated snails had significantly lower enzyme
activities in all the gut regions than the active
snails. Furthermore the stomach recorded the
highest enzyme activities of all the gut regions.


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Abstract

Book piracyisanillegalandillegitimatereproduction of otherpeople's intellectualpropertyforeconomicreasons
without prior consent or authorization. This paper examines the intricate dimension of book piracy in the
Nigerian Publishing Industry. It notes the dangers the trend portends to qualitative education and scholarship
in general. The paper identifies the different forms of book piracy as: local reproduction of fast moving titles
using newsprint or poor textured paper, abuse of publication rights, hi-tech reproduction overseas, circumventing
the e-book version, illegal reprography, unauthorized excessive production by printers, and translation without permission.
Some of the causes of book piracy are poverty, book scarcity, ignorance of the copyright laws by the public
and the uncooperative attitude of some countries in endorsing international treaties on intellectual property rights.
The paper recommends the following as panacea to stemming the tide of the menace: cost reduction strategies,
national book policy and commissioning of local authorship, awareness and enforcement of copyright laws, revitalization
of libraries, sanctions on countries showing complacency towards piracy, special algorithms to detect illegal
downloads, security printing devices and moral suasion.


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Governance, according to Mhone (2003) refers to the manner in which central or a federal, provincial or state or local institution performs its role in terms of efficiency and effectiveness with respect to its outputs and outcomes rc5pectively. When the various statutory bodies and parastatals are added we have public sector. In addition, the notion of state would include the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government.


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The present study aims to evaluate the fungal inhibitory activity of seed kernel oil extracted from mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit. Mango is one of the most important tropical fruits that is abundant in Nigeria. Thus, there is an abundant supply of mango seed kernels which are considered as wastes after consumption or industrial processing of mango fruits. The oil was extracted from the mango seed kernels by solvent extraction process. Agar dilution assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mango seed kernel oil against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum. The mango seed kernel oil (MSKO) was found to inhibit growth of the two fungi tested at different concentrations (1.33%, 2.67% and 4.0%). 4% concentration of MSKO in the agar brought about a reduction in the mycelial growth diameter of A. niger at Day 7 from 44.0 ± 1.41 mm (control) to 35.5 ± 0.71 mm while the reduction in the mycelial growth diameter of P. italicum at Day 7 was from 44.0 ± 14.14 mm (control) to 33.0 ± 0.00 mm. Mango seed kernel oil produced mycelium growth inhibition of A. niger and P. italicum at 4% concentration, with percentage inhibitions of 19.32% and 25.0%, respectively. The results revealed that P. italicum was more sensitive to the mango seed kernel oil than A. niger. These results
suggest that mango seed kernel oil could have potential applications in the food industry to prevent fungal associated food spoilage from important pathogenic genera Aspergillus and Penicillium.


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In the last few years, failure in secondary schools certificate examination has become a recurring incidence in Nigeria. This scenario can be traced to aliteracy which is the ability to read but choosing not to do so. The governments at various levels, the parents,
teachers, school librarians and indeed the students all have roles in putting an end to this menace. This paper seek to identify aliteracy among Nigerian students, examine the roles of school libraries and school librarians, teachers and other stakeholders in the joint task
of reducing to the barest minimum and indeed putting an end to aliteracy and the consequent failure among the secondary schools in Nigeria.


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Abstract
Water is a universal solvent, needed to sustain life. This study revealed the extent of microbial contamination in Ujiogba River, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. Forty – two water samples from three sampling points along the course of the river were collected and analysed from January to April, 2012, to determine the river’s microbial load. Seven bacterial isolates identified include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The fungal isolates included Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. The bacterial counts ranged from 21 to 96 x102cfu/ml, with the highest frequency of occurrence in Escherichia coli (25.81%) and least in Salmonella sp. (4.84%). The microbial load of water collected downstream was significantly different from the other sampling points. The pH and temperature ranged between 6.8±0.28 to 7.7±1.64 and 28±1.63°C to 35± 2.16°C, respectively. The water was contaminated and did not meet the minimum standard requirement of drinking water as prescribed by the World Health Organisation and United States Environmental and Protection Agency. The microorganisms isolated are capable of causing a lot of waterborne diseases. There is need for continuous monitoring so as to improve water quality and safeguard consumers from the impending public health diseases outbreak.


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The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non - financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM) and Operating Profit Margin (0PM) were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (OR). The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

 


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One fundamental principle of media business is the fact that media people must always put public interest first in all their dealings. This they are expected to do irrespective of their geographic or ownership leanings. While one recognises the fact that these factors remain contentious in the media circle and sometimes difficult to do away with in media business, the social responsibility principle should always be allowed to govern all media engagements. While some observers argue that this principle rules only in developed world and not in the third world, others argue otherwise. This review looks at whether or not geographical and ownership considerations influence media people in their coverage of political crisis around the world. After a review of some empirical
studies, it is concluded that geographical location and ownership play significant role in media coverage of political crisis.


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This paper examines how infrastructure will play a vital role in the realization of Nigeria’s Vision 20: 2020. The objective is to assess the adequacy of Nigerian infrastructural base as a pre-requisite to the realization of the laudable Vision 20:2020. It is expected that Nigerian government will use the result of this study to evaluate Nigeria’s infrastructure so that appropriate steps can be taken to address the palpable deficit in infrastructure. The study used data from secondary source of published materials from credible internet web sites to analyze the current Nigerian situation. The results of the study reveal that though the project of Vision 20:2020 is grandiose, there seems to be a lack of corresponding will to achieve the ideals of the Vision as evident in the deficit in our transport infrastructure, electricity power generation and technological impetus as shown by the standards of Nigerian tertiary education (universities and others). The study therefore recommends amongst others that: there should be sufficient fiscal discipline, transparency, good governance and accountability to ensure that there is adequate commitment to the Vision: the transport infrastructure should be expanded and upgraded, with provision made for their maintenance; Nigeria should take concerted steps to address the problem of power generation and distribution, and Nigerian tertiary education should be restructured.


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Abstract
For over a century now, the attention of communication scholars has shifted from strategic communication to strategic silence with an open invitation for experts to investigate the potency of the latter in the line of communication. As an honour to this invitation, this study investigates the use of strategic silence in interpersonal communication among residents of Enugu Metropolis in Enugu State Nigeria. In conducting this survey, explanatory mixed method research design was used to generate both qualitative and quantitative data using questionnaire and interview. After a thorough analysis, both quantitative and qualitative data revealed that residents of Enugu metropolis use strategic silence in interpersonal communication. Finding also revealed that the respondents use strategic silence both negatively and positively to influence others in the line of communication. Based on these findings, it is recommended that users of strategic silence should always deploy it for positive reasons.


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The fermentation of cane sugar as substrate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (enzyme) was critically investigated to obtain certain useful kinetic parameters and to determine the effect of temperature, pH, substrate and yeast (enzyme) concentration on the rate of fermentation. The results indicate that the rate of fermentation (measured as rate of production of CO2) increased in proportion with temperature (optimum 32˚C - 36˚C), pH (optimum 5.5) substrate (optimum 50 v/v%) and yeast concentration (optimum 3.5 - 4.5 w/v%) up to a limit and subsisted either as a plateau and/or, decreases as the case may be. This suggests that the reaction takes place in two steps. The kinetic parameters examined are maximum rate of reaction Vmax (2.0 × 102M∙min−1), catalytic constant, k2 (1.81 × 10−1 min−1), overall rate constant, k (1.53 × 101 min−1), order of initial reaction (approx. first order), dissociation constant of enzyme-substrate complex, ks (2.74 × 103), Michaelis constant, km (2.74 × 103 M), and the specific activity of enzyme on substrate concentration (1 × 10−1 w/v%). The result of this study showed that the equilibrium step involving k−1/k1 is the limiting step deciding the direction of reaction as well as the specific activity of the enzyme.


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This study analyzed the state of the Nigerian Agricultural Credit System since 1987 – 2000. It dealt with the problems of financing agricultural projects, the role of agricultural credit institutions such as the Central Bank of Nigeria, the Commercial and Merchant Banks,
specialized lending institutions, the informal agricultural credit agencies such as moneylenders, as well as the impact of sectoral allocation of credit facilities as a monetary policy to the agricultural sector of the economy.
The paper also examined the various policy measures the government introduced to improve on the agricultural sector as well as the various sources of credit that are available to create an effective and efficient agricultural sector


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This paper examines the management of foreign exchange services under the Foreign Currency Domiciliary Account scheme and its contributions to the development and growth of Finance of International Trade in Nigeria and globally, International trade involves the exchange of goods and services between nations and settlement of the financial obligations arising from the activities. The operations of the Foreign Currency Domiciliary Account scheme which is one of the modes of settlement of International obligations will be analyzed showing its strengths, weaknesses and constraints. Recommendations would also be offered on the smooth running of the scheme to the development and growth of International trade.. 


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The focus of this paper is on the impact of HRM practices on private sector organisations performance in Nigeria. Guinness Nigeria Plc is a private sector driving entity. Its human resource practices can be crucial to its performance. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess whether Guinness’s human resource management practices, particularly recruitment and selection, Staff performance appraisal, compensation, and training and development practices influence its performance. Simple random sampling was used to select eighty employees from Guinness Nig. Plc. T-tests were carried out to examine the relationship between the selected Human Resources practices and organization performance. The results revealed that, from the perceptions of the respondents, there exists a positive relationship between effective recruitment and selection practices, effective performance appraisal practices and Guinness’s performance. The research did not gather sufficient evidence to conclude on how compensation, training and development practices influence organization’s performance. The study recommends that the management of Guinness Nig. Plc continues to ensure that the company’s Human Resources policy, effective recruitment and selection practices, as well as effective performance appraisal practices are upheld.


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Abstract
Lassa fever, a zoonotic disease, endemic in parts of Nigeria, is caused by the Lassa virus. It is a haemorrhagic fever, caused by the Lassa virus. The animal host is Mastomynatalensis. This paper presents a state of knowledge report through literature search, newspaper report and oral communication. The virus is fairly easily transmitted from human to human. The symptoms are varied and non-specific, making clinical diagnosis of the disease difficult in the early stages. The fever was first reported in Nigeria in 1969 in Bornu State. Up to date, it has been clinically confirmed in 21 states.
Nigerians especially in rural areas are oblivious of the disease and there are only two hospitals in the country with the capacity to screen the blood for Lassa virus. The best strategy for control of the emerging disease is prevention through an intensive awareness
campaign and libraries all over Nigeria has a role to play in the control and reduction of cases of the disease.


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Abstract
This study espoused the role of the media on the disagreement between the government and its citizens on the issue of deregulating the downstream sector. Using the agenda-setting theory and the explanatory mixed method design, the analysis of data were approached from two dimensions. In determining the sample size for quantitative analysis, the multistage sampling technique was employed, which provided for 16 editions of the newspapers selected. The study revealed that media coverage of the deregulation of the downstream sector was certainly high and very impressive. It was concluded that the media of communication can serve as a potent tool in direction the cause of an event. It was recommended, however, that media organisations should collaborate
with the government in power to work out modalities on how the coverage of the deregulation process would go in other to foster the greater good of society and democracy at large.


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The  focus  of  this  paper  is  on  entrepreneurial  development  and  analysis  of  Interventionist Agencies in Nigeria. It examines the critical stages or sphere of development required of the entrepreneur in order to enable him perform his strategic functions in the organization and in the context of organizational strategic management in Nigeria. In pursuit of the focus of this paper, it treats numerous issues (an overview inclusive). It also examines the entrepreneurial roles and factors affecting its strategic management importance. Furthermore it x-rays in detail the three- skill approach to entrepreneurial development. These include technical, human and conceptual skills. It analyzes some government interventionist institutions and agencies established to encourage entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The paper posits that though there is a widespread knowledge of the efficacy of entrepreneurial development mix, integrated entrepreneurial development efforts indicates that several of the institutions established by government concentrated on a partial approach to entrepreneurial development programme. Finally, it concludes and recommends four priorities agenda to enhance the entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.


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Abstract
This study examines the cashless economic system so as to assess
its feasibility in Nigeria vis-à-vis: timeless, preparedness and
adequacy against the backdrop of our level of development both
technologically and educationally. Nigeria has continued to evolve
in different realms. The economy is being reformed, the institutions
are being reshaped and legislations are being re-examined so as to
reposition the nation to take its rightful position in the international
community. As a way of fast-tracking the Nigerian economy so
as to be among the first 20 world economies come 2020, Nigeria
has proposed that come 2012 it will adopt the cashless economic
system. The study used structured questionnaire as a means
of data collection and the collected data were analyzed using
simple percentage procedure. The results indicate that: majority
of Nigerians are already aware of the policy and majority agree
that the policy will help fight against corruption/money laundering
and reduce the risk of carrying cash. Major problems envisaged
to hamper the implementation of the policy are: cyber fraud and
illiteracy. Based on the findings some recommendations made
are: the government should adopt a different strategy to educate
the non-literate Nigerians about the cashless economy; and a
framework should be worked out to provide cyber security in
Nigeria.



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Any business enterprise that strives to meet customers' satisfaction in this information age cannot afford to ignore computerisation and use of Information Technology in its operation. Banks in Nigeria have been fully sensitised on this and most of them have computerised. However. this has led to proliferation of software usage and it is giving the Supervising Authorities concern. This paper proposes the use of a) Supervising Authority ’s Interest; b) Cost-benefit analysis. and c) Methods of Acquiring Information System as basis for determining the software to be used by Banks and it is hoped that these suggestions will reduce the number of soft wares in use in the banking industry in Nigeria.


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Nomads constitute about 6 percent of the African population and are found in at least 20 different countries across the continent (Muhammed and Abbo, 2010:3). In Nigeria, the nomads who constitute about 7.6 percent (9.8 million) of the country’s population were, before the establishment of the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989, excluded from all formal educational schemes. The establishment of this commission saw the introduction of a special education system to get the hard-to-reach educated. To decentralize the system, so many states, including Jigawa State established the state’s version of NCNE. In 2008, Jigawa State established the Jigawa State Agency for Nomadic Education. To keep to its mandate of getting all nomads in the state educated, the agency adopted two major strategies – Mobile School System and Open Distance Learning. The later strategy is driven by the various community radio stations scattered in all the zones in the state. Three years down the line, how far has the agency gone in educating the nomads? This paper examines the role the community radio stations have played in educating the nomads through Open Radio Distance Learning using the descriptive research method. Findings reveal that students’ enrolment into the system has increased from less than 15 percent in 2008 to over 65 percent in 2011. Literacy level has equally increased by over 60 percent. Currently, the agency boasts of over 518 instructors and over 26,642 students.


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The motivation for this study is the need to save the Nigerian public tertiary institutions front going into extinction from under-funding. Funding oftlte institutions is currently on the basis ofownership. There is currently conflict of citizens‘ rigltt to education at whatever level at reduced cost or no cost at all and government's inability to ntect the cost of education. Government end up giving what it thinks it can afford and not what the institutions need to operate effectively. On the other hand the institutions are ttot given the free hand to determine wltat the beneficiaries of their services should pay. This study recommends that the institutions should be seen as separate entities from govemment and therefore be allowed to detenttine the price for their services. Citizens' rigltt should be met through educational subsidies front all levels of government. The balance fees should be picked by the beneficiaries of the services of the institutions. This is the surest way to the survival of tertiary institutions in the Nigerian environment.

 


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There has been widespread corruption in almost all societies and a general belief that without the involvement of Accountants. or if accountants carry out their duties effectively. there will be no corruption. Therefore this paper is designed to look at the current approach educating accountants in order to discover the educational arrangement put in place to ensure ethic standards on the pan of the persons trained to become accountants. After an extensive review of literature, past and present training arrangements, it was found that the training of accountants has been deficient in the areas of ethics as it has not been part of the curriculum of accounting courses. It was also found that even at the professional level, ethics does not form part of subjects examined and graduates come in close contact with the knowledge of ethics at their various organizations when alreadyr in employment. The paper therefore recommends that ethics and value system should be taught and examined as a full fledged course in accounting programs in the tertiary institutions. In addition they should be examined in the accounting professional examinations in societies where corruption is pervasive.


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Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) Afzel (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicinal practice for the treatment of hypertension. This research is devoted to phytochemical constituents, in particular, some specific alkaloids present in the RV root extract. The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids in this extract. The antioxidant activity of the RV root extract was also evaluated in a series of in vitro assays involving free radicals. The extract exhibited significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect relative to ascorbic acid (p < 0.05, IC50= 98 μg/ml), nitric oxide scavenging effect (50.37 ± 0.4% after 150 min), and metal chelating activity (89.08 ±2.62%). In addition, it exhibited significant ferric reducing power relative to ascorbic acid (p < 0.05). The total content of phenolic substances was 233.3 ± 2.9 mg/g. The extract was also studied for its inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation as a possible mechanism of its aphrodisiac effect, by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in various male-cow tissues incubated in a 5% solution of the RV root extract, distilled water, and antioxidant vitamins C and E upon keeping the samples frozen for 35 days. Tissues incubated in the test solution had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to those in the samples incubated in distilled water. Results obtained from this study indicate that the RV root extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidants.


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