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A total of 160 sputum samples were obtained from pneumonia patients (1 – 30 years) attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The microorganisms encountered included Streptococcus viridians, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus species. S. viridans was highest in occurrence (51.5%) and Staphylococcus sp. was the least (2.9%). Their antibiotic resistance pattern revealed that streptomycin had the highest activity (94.1%) and gentamycin the least (23.8%). Amoxicillin resistance gene (amxr) was detected in 89 (88.1%) out of the total isolates. When these resistant isolates were subjected to curing using 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 73 (82.0%) lost their resistance genes. An average transfer rate of 53.88% and 33.59% were obtained for intraspecies and intergeneric transfer of amxr gene respectively. Intraspecies gene transfer rate was significantly higher than intergeneric at p<0.001, using the chi – square goodness of fit test for statistical analysis.


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Based on the previous knowledge of spontaneously fermenting maize for the preparation of Ogi,
four growth media were used for the isolation of the different common group of organisms
implicated. Yeasts and Molds were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida sp.,
Rhodotorula sp., Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. The bacteria were Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus lactis, Enterococcus feacalis,
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp., Klebseilla sp., Bacillus
subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Aerobacter sp., and Corynebacteria sp. A sharp
decrease in pH of fermenting gruel from 5.7 to 3.5 was observed within 24 hours while titratable
acidity increases within the first 48 hours with a further increase and decrease in pH and titratable
acidity at 72 hours.These isolates were subjected to pH ranges of 3.5 – 6 and all were able to grow
at optimum pH 6 with a reduction in the number of isolates as pH reduces. Growth in temperature
ranging from 250C to 500C, salt (NaCl, MgS04, K2HP04, CuS04 and ZnS04) and sugar (glucose,
sucrose, lactose, melibiose and raffinose) concentrations of 0.2% to 1% were carried out on all the
isolates. With increase in temperature and salt concentration, a reduction in the number of isolates
that grew was observed. From this study, the optimum conditions that favours the growth of all the
group of organisms was found to be pH 6, 300C, 0.2% of the salts used and a significant population
of all the group of organisms utilized glucose as their best carbon source.


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This paper focused on the challenges and prospects of private sector organizations as the main engines of economic growth and development in Nigeria. It discussed the concepts of organization, the prospects and challenges of private sector-led growth in Nigeria. The study examined the current business environment and discussed ways of encouraging the private sector organizations in Nigeria to act as a catalyst for economic growth and development. The paper posits that to achieve a desired sustainable private sector-led the growth of the economy, it is imperative for the government to continuously put in place policies and programs that will encourage private sector participation and contribution to the development process. Finally, it concluded that there is growth in the financial performance of private sector organizations and its sustained prospects and success hinged on all those series of initiatives and policies of the government to advances private sector-led growth and transform the country into an economy that is robust, stable, dynamic, export-led and competitive


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This study analyses the difl‘erences in profits among Nigerian Banks for the period 2000 to

2004. The profit and loss accounts and the balance sheets of the banks for the period were

gathered. Using the Statistical Cost Accounting (SCA) method, the rates of return on balance

sheet items were estimated for both high and low profit banks. The result of the analysis

revealed that the fitctors that influence high profit banks are dtfl'erent from those that influence

low profit banks. These factors are liquid assets, finance leases, loans and advances. fixed and

other assets, other liabilities and off balance sheet businesses using absolute figures. 0n the

other hand using ratios derived from the absolute figure the factors are liquid assets to total

assets. bills of exchange and investment to total assets. finance leases to total assets. loans and

advances to total assets. fixed and other assets to total assets, other liabilities to total assets am!

capital risk. In order to improve on their profits, low profit banks need to take action to improve

their rating on these factors to earn profits like their high profit counterparts.


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In order to investigate the mechanism of antibiotic resistance of some bacterial pathogens from the sputum of pneumonia patients, 160 sputum samples were collected from patients within 1-30 years of age attending the outpatients department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. 101 (63.1%) out of this number gave growth for bacterial pathogens. The bacteria isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus viridans and Moraxella catarrhalis. The highest in occurrence was S. viridians (51.5%) and the least was Staphylococcus spp (2.9%). The age group 1-5 years had the highest bacterial count (69.9%) while age group 21-25 years had the least count (50%). The isolates were highly resistant to the various antibiotics used. The resistance rate was highest for streptomycin (94.1%) and lowest for gentamycin (20.8%). 89(88.1%) out of the total number, showed the presence of amoxicillin resistance (amxr) gene. When these resistant isolates were subjected to curing in the presence of 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 73(82.01%) lost their amxr gene which showed that this gene was probably located on a plasmid in these strains.


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Abstract
This study examines the determinants of a firm’s capital structure in 16 nonfinancial
Nigerian listed companies for the period 1992-2007. This paper
attempts to empirically analyse the factors that affect a firm’s choice of
capital structure, as well as determine which capital structure theory best
explains the capital structure decision behaviour of Nigerian non-financial
companies. The result obtained provides evidence that a firm’s profitability,
growth pattern, tangibility and size significantly determine its capital
structure. Also, we find evidence in support for the static trade-off theory
and the agency cost theory and little or no support of the information
asymmetry theory as to the capital structure behaviour of manufacturing
companies in Nigeria. These findings have several implications, the most
salient of which is that with the identification of major determining factors
of capital structure, managers planning for the long-term are aided to
improve their firms for better performance with its reverberating effects on
the Nigerian economy.


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Organisational development and change are forms of social cultural updates of work processes. Development and change are inevitable in organisations. When they occur and are effectively managed, the benefits are many. These include improvement in competitive positioning, a steady performance, an evolution of a corporate culture that is in consonance with the business environment, increase in productivity and employee moral as well as the development of new managerial skills/strategies. Therefore, business organisational development and change are interwoven irrespective of their nature. The lack of understanding of business organisational development and change would bring some negative development consequences that are against the goals of sustainable development in the society. Organisational changes comprising episodic and continuous change are analysed. The three phases of the change processes comprising unfreezing, changing and refreezing are identified. All these are towards the attainment of increased productivity for sustainable development.


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Using the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) the efi‘iciency of Nigerian banks was analysed. The result of the study proved that there is inefficiency in the Nigerian banking system and that the level of inefl‘iciency ranged from 0 to 19 per cent of total cost. The study was able to derive the individual bank’s level of inefficiency. Put differently, the study was able to derive the individual bank’s level of efficiency.

 

 


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The growth performance and the activities of glycosidases (amylase, cellulase and α-glucosidase) in the foot muscle of giant land snail, Archachatina marginata were examined during aestivation. Aestivation significantly affected the growth performance of the snails as active snails gained 16.4±0.02g while the aestivated snails lost 15.5±0.1g. Three glycosidases were detected in the foot muscle of the snails at varying levels: 33-37 Abs/min (α-glucosidase), 11-15 Abs/min (amylase) and 28-31 Abs/min (cellulase) with the active snails having significantly higher activities (Abs/min) in α-glucosidase and cellulase. Aestivation thus significantly affects the foot muscle activities of A. marginata


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Abstract


The paper examined the ubiquitous nature of digital institutional repositories and their concomitant capabilities.
It specifically show-cased the robust process and technical details involved in the development and sustenance
of Covenant University Institutional Repository which has consistently ranked number one repository in Nigeria
based on webometric rankings. Relying on Strajda Process Management model, Covenant University adopted
two open source software- Dspace and E-print based on adjudged robustness of the metadata, relative easy to
setup as well as amenable to customization. The paper recommended among others, the sensitization of
researchers on the dangers of ceding copyright to Journal publishers as the practice divests them of inherent
rights and may preclude deposition of their works on the Institutional repository thereby undermining growth of
content and visibility of research outputs. It further recommended backup systems that forestall intrusion and
mitigate effect of potential disasters on sustainability of Institutional Repository.


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Abstract

Information and Communication Technology has revolutionized library and information services delivery across the globe. The paper examines the Covenant University experience  as a model to encourage libraries in developing economies that leveraging with international standards and benchmarks as well as best practices is possible. The superiority of ICT-based library over its manual counterpart is highlighted. This includes: easy integration of various activities, increase in the range of services offered, provision of round-the-clock access to users, etc. The paper discusses inhibiting factors to running a hi-tech library in Africa and draws heavily from the Covenant University context to underscore basic infrastructures, skills, values and technological capabilities that are irreducible imperatives and prerequisites for efficient as well as effective running and maintenance of an ICT-based library. It concludes by admonishing that African libraries must not be left behind in this era of flat world and universal as well as unfettered access to global information. The panacea to intellectual i11equity and lopsidedness between the developed and developing world is the application of ICT in information management and dissemination.


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Abstract

The Nigerian women represent a powerful, creative and credible force that must be empowered to contribute to the constitutional development of the nation. Their involvement would be tantamount to catalyzing and releasing dormant but rich potentials to the benefit of all. The paper examines information as a veritable resource for capacity building necessary for principled participation in any polity. It concludes that awareness. Confidence and participation of women in constitutional development of a country are a junction of information at their disposal.


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Abstract
Purpose: The paper examines the issue of accreditation, types, status and ethical
considerations in Library and Information Science, with reference to other
professions as a model to adopt.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper began by defining the concept of
accreditation, objectives and types. It went further to discuss issues and status of
accreditation with disciplines in Nigeria, Lessons from other disciplines in
connection with there professional standards. It finally enjoined the Nigeria Library
Association (NLA) and Librarian Registration Council of Nigeria (LRCN) to borrow
a leaf from other developed countries to help ensure standards in the profession.
Findings: from the paper accreditation is said to be a process by which institutions
or programmes continuously update their educational standard through evaluation
programme and institutional accreditation are the two types we have, some of the
objectives of accreditation are: to stimulate and integrate the efforts of institutions to
evaluate the standards of education; to strengthen the capabilities of the educational
institutions for service to the nation; and to identify educational institutions that
meets stated criteria for academic quality. In Nigeria, the National University
Commission (NUC) is responsible for the accreditation of Library and Information
Science (LIS) Schools, unlike in United Kingdom (UK) United State of America
(USA) and Australia where professional bodies are chiefly responsible for the
accreditation of LIS Schools. Other professional bodies in Nigeria like Nigeria
Institution of Architecture, the Council of Legal Education, the Medical and Dental
Council of Nigeria and Chartered Accountants of Nigeria participate actively in the
accreditation of their professions. It is therefore suggested that NLA and LRCN
should live up to their responsibility by participating in the accreditation exercise of
LIS Schools, provide parameter for recognition of the degrees and empower
librarians and LIS Schools with adequate skills and competence to compete globally.
Practical Implication: The NUC should incorporate NLA and LRCN to implement
the stipulated standards for accreditation of LIS Schools.
Originality: Its originality is in the writers’ analysis of accreditation issues in LIS
Schools in Nigerian Universities, as against what is done in some other countries
vis-à-vis other professions NLA, LIS School, NUC and LRCN have much lessons
and information to gain from the work.


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Abstract

Reading is one of life's greatest pleasures, and opens the door to culture, knowledge and independence.· It can be very therapeutic. This study examines the effect of bibliotherapy on aging. phobia among Covenant University academic and senior staff The result. Shows that reading of books has influenced positively their perception. and attitude towards aging. And that books especially, the bible, internet and friends are major sources of information to ameliorate any fear of aging.


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ABSTRACT

The paper examines the information literacy function of libraries as an indispensable catalyst in educational and national development. It also discusses specific and concrete ways in which libraries facilitate such development through the skills inculcated into users. Realities and peculiarities of library services in developing countries were reviewed. It concludes that since only enlightened, creative and skilled workforce can translate to development, adequate  investment in libraries becomes a sine-qua-non.


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Abstract

The paper considers the widespread recognition that learning is not merely confined to the different stages that are associated with the early periods of life but rather spans through life. It emphasizes the importance of the library to adult education, noting that the quality and credibility of adult education as well as lifelong learning opportunities in a country is determined by the robustness of library services available in that country. The paper further highlights the point that public libraries in Nigeria are severely flawed as agencies of education and social development as they virtually non-existed in the rural and urban marginal areas. Even in the few urban centres where they exist, their services are undermined by poor funding and obsolete as well as inadequate stocks. The paper thus notes that this has great repercussion for adult learning in the country since a quality library service is pivotal to any meaningful adult education and lifelong learning programs.  It concludes that in order to be effective and act as a catalyst to quality education, especially for adult learners, the public library must evolve to mirror vitality of good library service and sustain the interest of its users.

 


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