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Money is anything generally accepted within a given community and printed by Central Bank of Nigeria for the purpose of making payments and discharging obligations.

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Historically, central banking started in Nigeria with the West African Currency Board (WACB) set up in 1912 by the Colonial Government to undertake the following functions:

  • The distribution of currency-pound sterling, which at the time, was the legal tender in the colonies of The Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.
  • To invest in the London Money Market, the proceeds of sale of natural products like cocoa, palm products, groundnuts, timber, rubber and others for which the colonies were known.

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Commercial banks are retail banks because they attend to small-time and big-time savers whether as individuals, unregistered associations or as corporate bodies.

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This is ENG 212 course offered by 200 level students. The topic that will be shortly considered here is intonation. At the end of the class students would be exposed to different patterns or tunes of intonation. These patterns will help the students to know when to apply them appropriately in their conversations. Intonation as an odulation or movement of pitch in an utterance is a suprasegmental feature of speech.
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This course is studied at both 300 level and 400 level. It is an applied course meant for higher levels. The course exposes students to different ways of analysing data from a linguistic point of view. It also allows students to analyse data without any form of restriction. Data are subjected to linguistic analysis. This is to say that linguistic features that have stylistic effects in a particular data are identified and analysed. In order to carry out a good stylistic analysis of any text, language is crucial most especially functionality and descriptiveness. So, stylistics has to do with how language is used to perform different functions. It describes and interpret linguistic data from an objective perspective.  

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 Colour is a constant companion of man. Colour is everywhere and it gives much information about the world in which we live in. From cradle to grave we constantly interact with colour. Generally, colour and colouring compounds have immense importance to both man and animals due to their usefulness. In everyday life, there are both textile and non-textile applications of colour. This first and introductory lesson in this course;” Colour and Textile Chemistry (CHM 316)”, examines among other things colour and its constitution.

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Industrial microbiology is a broad area that deals with all forms of microbiology which have an
economic effect regardless of whether it involves a fermentation product or some form of
deterioration, disease or waste disposal.
A vast range of important products, many of which were formerly manufactured by chemical
processes, are now most economically produced by microbial fermentation and biotransformation
processes. Microorganisms have proved to be particularly useful because of
(i) the ease of their mass cultivation,
(ii) speed at which they grow,
(iii) use of cheap substrates that in many cases are wastes,
(iv) their ability to readily undergo genetic manipulation
(iv) and the diversity of potential products.

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Network analysis or models are used for project evaluation and are applied to a wide range of management problems in private or public sectors. The models are also used to schedule, organise and coordinate tasks within a project.

The models include;

  1. Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
  2. Critical Path Method (CPM)

The network model was developed in 1950 by the Naval Project Office in the United State. The development was with a view to enable management know the following;

  1. Time of completion of the project
  2. Time the individual part of project is scheduled to start and finish
  3. Which part of the project must finish on time to avoid delay (Critical Path)
  4. The possibility of shifting resources to critical path of project from Non critical path
  5. Where management should concentrate its efforts at any time among other part of the project



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Managers are frequently faced with complex decisions that need to be made. These decisions often have great impact on the profitability of the organization as well as the decision maker's career. Therefore, it is essential that the decision maker be given the best information available to aid the process of decision making. Hence, ...

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Coordination chemistry is the chemistry of coordination compound which involves the interaction between the transition metals and ligands. It can also consist of complex ion and counter ion.  

The different types of structure in coordination chemistry include the following:

  1. Linear structure
  2. Tetrahedral structure
  3. Square planar structure
  4. Octahedral structure

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Organic chemistry is the chemistry  that involves the scientific study of structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials. Such as: Matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition  and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials.

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The concept of elasticity of demand is of great empirical relevance to monopoly pricing, particularly with respect to price discrimination. Monopolist is a single seller of unique products with no close substitute unlike the pure competitor. Owing to this fact, the monopolist can practice price discrimination. Price discrimination is the practice of either charging different prices for the same units of output to different customers or the practice of selling different units of output at different prices to different customers. Discrimination offers the monopolist unique privilege of treating customers differently according to their elasticities in order to maximize profit.

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Corruption is one of the most pronounced development cankerworm, as it inhibits sustainable growth and development, through the misallocation and misappropriation of resources. The destabilizing effect of corruption has assumed a monumental scale as many development-oriented initiatives have been stalled.  Much of the evidences have shown that corruption is a clog in the country’s wheel of progress, and that it contributes to the impoverishment of the people,  leads to economic stagnation,   accentuates social and economic disparities, and eventually,  political violence. As a socio-political, economic and moral malaise, corruption is contagious and if not tamed can induce total state failure.

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The idea of contemporary history was novel to pre-20th century historians. To the
professional historians of the pre-20th century era, contemporary was taken as equivalent to “the present” while history was equated with the “past”. This is a reflection of that futile attempt to divorce the present from the past in the study of history. This dictioformy is certainly invalid. In actual life, no meaningful division exists between past, present and history as well as human activities cannot be so divided. Periodization in history is merely a matter of convenience because one age merges indiscernibly into another. In history, no rigid dates can be set to divide
modern history from any other and no date exists for the beginning of contemporary history (see E.H. Carr, „What is History? P.22).

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A contract is said to be discharge when its obligations are no longer binding on
the promisor. Discharge may be effected by:




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CAUSES: It is important to note that the Crimean war was fought between Russia and
Turkey, while the latter had the support of Britain and France. What then was the cause of this war?

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This introductory topic gives a synopsis of the theory and practice that are examined in greater detail throughout the rest of the subject. The use of HRM is concerned with all facets of how workers are engaged and controlled in organizations. The areas treated in HRM as a subject include strategic HRM, human capital management, corporate social responsibility, knowledge management, organizational development, human resource planning, staffing and selection, and capacity management, employee performance appraisal, training and development, reward management, industrial and employee relations, and health and safety.

HRM concepts, theories and practices have been drawn from the behavioural and management sciences. These underpinning theories have been built with help of a multitude of research projects. Hence, the rationale and objective of this section are to present a general introduction to the practice of HRM. It covers the definition of HRM, functions of HRM, the characteristics of HRM, the growth of HRM as an approach to managing people, the essence and importance of HRM. The topic engages in a short discussion of the theme of personnel and HRM, and in particular, examines to what extent there may be distinguishing features between them. Also discussed are: the scope of HRM, the status of HRM in the organizational setting, types of personnel that should work in HRM and their skills, changes occurring in Human resource management environments and future of HRM

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Learning Objectives:

After studying this topic, the reader should be able to know about:

  • Investment evaluation techniques
  • Capital investment techniques,
  • Other variables that affect investment appraisal techniques
  • Summary and conclusions

Revision Questions


Investment contemplation is a long-term consideration and decision where expenditure and investment options are balanced in the expectation that investment now will generate extra returns in the future. There are similarities between short-run and long-run decision-making, for example, the option between alternative, the need to consider future costs and income and the significance of incremental alteration in costs and incomes, but there is an added obligation for investment decision, since the added worth of money invested must be measured (Lucey, 1996).

The purpose of the topic is to examine the wide range of criteria for evaluating the usefulness of investment evaluation method and describe the ways inflation and taxation affect project appraisal.

The investment evaluation methods could not give a quantitative analysis which gives a firm foundation from which a considered decision can be made, based on three major factors (Pandey, 2007) Viz:

  • The shareholder’s confidence in the prospect of the enterprise. The belief would be based on forecasts of internal and external factors including costs, revenues, inflation and interest rates, taxation and numerous other factors.
  • The alternatives available in which to invest. The various methods to appraise competing investments would be adequately covered in this study.
  • The investor's attitude to risk. Because investment decisions are often on a large-scale investigation of the investor's approach to threat and the project's uncertainty are critical factors in an investment decision.

In order to handle these decisions, (Pandey, 2007) stated that top management of firms has to make an assessment of the size of the outflows and inflows of funds, and the effects of such decision.

Although the absolute result would be made by management the analyst assesses the alternatives available, analyzes the data using the most appropriate techniques and present the results of the exercise to management in the hope that better decision is made (Lucey, 1996).

The rest of the paper is structured as follows:

  1. Investment valuation techniques
  2. Capital investment techniques,

iii         Other variables that affect investment evaluation methods

  1. Summary and conclusion.

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An organization subsists based on the efforts of both the owners and the workers who are the leading movers of the set activities of the entity. The two parties co-exist and work together in the day-to-day business of the organization. The above situation in the place of work entails that there is distinct rapport linking the employer and the human resources. Such two parties in the organization embrace in the proper relationship, which is entirely for set function. Therefore, the relationship between the company and the staff is contractual in the environment, which is that of master-servant relations. The effect of this is that industrial relations as a term hold all features of the relationship between the entity and workers groups (trade union and the management) during the course of organizational operations.

Fundamentally, industrial relations from the foregoing cover all features of employment relations amid the employer and the employees in organizational operations. Hence, it relates to an agreement between the employer and the workers, regulation of conditions of service, collective bargaining, management of strikes, industrial democracy, and organization policies on how to relate on a mutual basis with individual staff and their trade unions on the path of organizational operations.

In this initial section of the course, the conceptual framework, the theories of, and the major parties in industrial relations such as the trade unions, the employer and the government are discussed.

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