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When a gas is subjected to heat, its behaviour can be described by pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T) and the number of moles (n) of the gases. These four variables or parameters are used to describe the state of a given mass of a gas.  Firstly in this topic, we shall discuss the relationship between the temperature, pressure and volume of a gas and thereafter examine the behaviour of gases using these parameters to deduce the various gas laws.


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This topic introduces the measurement of heat.  Some of the major concepts crucial to the measurement of heat which will be discussed here are: heat capacity, specific heat capacity, method of mixture, specific latent heat of fusion and vapourization.  In addition, you will also learn about the three basic effects of heat - expansion, change in temperature and change in state, and how they are associated with the measurement of heat. The word heat is sometimes used to refer to the process by which energy is transferred between objects because of a difference in their temperatures.


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This topic introduces a fundamental quantity called temperature. It is important in the study of heat energy or thermodynamics.   Temperature is different from heat.  Heat is a form of energy as a result of temperature difference while temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.  Hereafter, the concept of temperature shall be discussed using thermal equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamic.  Thereafter, temperature measurement using various temperature scales and the types of thermometer would be explained.


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Development of software involved the use of well defined process and their associated results. Software process acts as the fundamental basis for developing software. Software process is a framework for the tasks that are required to build high-quality software. This process defines the approach that is taken as software is engineered. It is a set of definite operations/activities whose aim or end result is the development or production of a good software product.  These sets of activities may involve the development of software from scratch. However, business applications are not necessarily developed in this way. New business software is now often developed by extending and modifying existing systems or by configuring and integrating off-the-shelf software or system components.


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